Hercules Version 4: Creating DASD

This page describes various ways of creating and loading DASD volumes for use with Hercules.


Contents

Using pre-built DASD images

Creating, formatting, and loading DASD volumes

Building a DASD volume from unloaded PDS files

Other DASD utilities


Using pre-built DASD images

IBM distributes pre-built OS/390 and z/OS systems on two different CD-ROM packages:

The OS/390 and z/OS Application Development CD (ADCD)
available only to members of IBM PartnerWorld for Developers, and

The OS/390 and z/OS DemoPkg
available only to IBM employees and qualified IBM Business Partners.

Both of these packages contain pre-built DASD image files which simply need to be unzipped onto your hard drive. The unzipped images can be directly read by Hercules.

Be aware, however, that you cannot use the ADCD images because the PartnerWorld scheme requires you to purchase or lease an IBM approved machine in order to obtain the ADCD, and the software on the ADCD is licensed for use only on the machine that it was shipped with. See http://www.ibm.com/servers/enable/site/zinfo/adcd.html. If you want Hercules to be an approved machine so that you can use the ADCD, then I suggest you lobby IBM Developer Relations at the address given on their web page.

Different rules apply to the OS/390 and z/OS DemoPkg CD which is available only to IBM employees and business partners. If you fall into this category then you probably know what the rules are -- I don't.   :-(


Creating, formatting, and loading DASD volumes

Creating an empty DASD volume

The dasdinit / dasdinit64 program must first be run from the Unix shell prompt to create a file containing an empty DASD volume.

The format of the dasdinit / dasdinit64 command is:

    Usage: dasdinit [-options] filename devtype[-model] [volser] [size]
    Builds an empty dasd image file
    options:
    
      -z        build compressed dasd image file using zlib
      -bz2      build compressed dasd image file using bzip2
      -0        build compressed dasd image file with no compression
      -lfs      build a large (uncompressed) dasd file (if supported)
      -a        build dasd image file that includes alternate cylinders
                (option ignored if size is manually specified)
      -r        build 'raw' dasd image file
                (no VOL1 or IPL track)
      -b        make wait PSW in IPL1 record a BC-mode PSW
                (default is EC-mode PSW)
      -m        enable wait PSW in IPL1 record for machine checks
                (default is disabled for machine checks)
      -linux    null track images will look like linux dasdfmt'ed images
                (3390 device type only)
    
      filename  name of dasd image file to be created
      devtype   CKD: 2305, 2311, 2314, 3330, 3340, 3350, 3375, 3380, 3390, 9345
                FBA: 0671, 3310, 3370, 9313, 9332, 9335, 9336
    
      model     device model (implies size) (opt)
      volser    volume serial number (1-6 characters)
                (specified only if '-r' option not used)
      size      number of CKD cylinders or 512-byte FBA sectors
                (required if model not specified else optional)


Note that the defaults for the wait PSW written to the IPL1 record have changed from earlier releases of Hercules. In the past, the wait PSW created by dasdinit was a BC-mode PSW enabled for machine check interrupts. The current default for the wait PSW is EC-mode, disabled for machine checks. To obtain the earlier behavior, run dasdinit with the "-b" and "-m" flags.

The current list of device types and models supported is:


              CKD DEVICES

                               alt
        devtype-model    cyls  cyls

        2311              [*]
        2311-1            200   2
                      
        2314              [*]
        2314-1            200   3
                      
        3330              [*]
        3330-1            404   7
        3330-2            808   7
        3330-11           808   7
                      
        3340              [*]
        3340-1            348   1
        3340-35           348   1
        3340-2            696   2
        3340-70           696   2
                      
        3350              [*]
        3350-1            555   5
                      
        3375              [*]
        3375-1            959   1
                      
        3380              [*]
        3380-1            885   1
        3380-A            885   1
        3380-B            885   1
        3380-D            885   1
        3380-J            885   1
        3380-2           1770   2
        3380-E           1770   2
        3380-3           2655   3
        3380-K           2655   3
        EMC3380K+        3339   3
        EMC3380K++       3993   3
                      
        3390              [*]
        3390-1           1113   1
        3390-2           2226   1
        3390-3           3339   1
        3390-9          10017   3
        3390-27         32760   3
        3390-54         65520   3
                      
        9345              [*]
        9345-1           1440   0
        9345-2           2156   0


             FBA DEVICES

        devtype-model  blocks

        3310              [*]
        3310-1         125664

        3370              [*]
        3370-Al        558000
        3370-B1        558000
        3370-A2        712752
        3370-B2        712752

        9313              [*]
        9313-1         246240

        9332              [*]
        9332-200       360036
        9332-400       360036
        9332-600       554800

        9335              [*]
        9335-1         804714

        9336              [*]
        9336-10        920115
        9336-20       1672881
        9336-25       1672881

        0671-08        513072
        0671           574560
        0671-04        624456

    [*] size may be specified else size defaults to the first listed model.

Volumes exceeding 2GB

For CKD volumes which exceed 2GB, such as the 3390-3, and for which the -lfs parameter is not specified, the DASDINIT / DASDINIT64 program will create multiple files by appending the characters _1, _2, _3 etc. to the file name specified on the command line. These characters are inserted before the first dot (.) after the last slash (/). If there is no dot, then the characters are appended to the end of the name. Each file contains a whole number of cylinders. Hercules CKD support recognizes the files as belonging to a single logical volume. Specify the full name of just the first file in the Hercules configuration file (e.g. "filename_1").

If the -lfs option is specified however, then the output file is a single large file which can be as large as your system supports.

The DASDINIT / DASDINIT64 program cannot create FBA volumes exceeding 2GB unless the -lfs parameter is specified and large file size is supported on your platform..

Examples

To create a 3330 model 1 CKD volume consisting of 404 cylinders (plus 7 alternate cylinders too) with volume serial number WORK01 in a file called work01.151:

    dasdinit -a work01.151 3330-1 work01

To create a compressed 3350 CKD volume consisting of 560 cylinders (555 cylinders plus the 5 alternate cylinders) with volume serial number SYSRES in a file called dosvs34.24f:

    dasdinit -a -bz2 dosvs34.24f 3350-1 sysres

To create a 3370 FBA volume with only 100000 sectors (instead of the usual 558000 sectors) with volume serial number WORK02 in a file called mini.work02.140:

    dasdinit mini.work02.140 3370 work02 100000

To create a 3390 model 3 (triple density) CKD volume of 3339 cylinders with volume serial number WORK03:

    dasdinit triple.a88 3390-3 work03

Because this volume exceeds 2GB, DASDINIT / DASDINIT64 will create two files with triple_1.a88 containing cylinders 0-2518 and triple_2.a88 containing cylinders 2519-3339. However, if you instead specify the -lfs option:

    dasdinit -lfs triple.a88 3390-3 work03

then DASDINIT /DASDINIT64 will create a single file triple.a88 containing all the cylinders. Your platform must support large file sizes to specify the -lfs option.

Formatting the empty DASD volume

After creating a DASD volume you can format it with a program such as standalone IBCDASDI or ICKDSF.

Here is an example of the IBCDASDI control statements required to initialize a 3330 volume:

    WORK01 JOB  'INITIALIZE 3330 WORK VOLUME'
           MSG   TODEV=1052,TOADDR=009
           DADEF TODEV=3330,TOADDR=151,IPL=NO,VOLID=WORK01,BYPASS=YES
           VLD   NEWVOLID=WORK01,OWNERID=HERCULES
           VTOCD STRTADR=1,EXTENT=5
           END

To run IBCDASDI, place the above statements in a file called init3330.txt and start Hercules in S/370 mode with a configuration file containing these statements:

    CPUSERIAL  001234
    CPUMODEL   3145
    MAINSIZE   2
    CNSLPORT   1052
    ARCHLVL    S/370

    0009   1052
    000A   1442    ibcdasdi.rdr
    000C   1442    init3330.txt
    0151   3330    work01.151

After IPLing from card reader device 00A, connect a telnet client to port 1052, and press enter. At the IBCDASDI prompt, enter the command:

    input=1442 00c

Loading the new DASD volume

Next, you need to create a full volume dump file of your chosen mainframe dasd volume (converting it to AWSTAPE format) by using the tapeconv.jcl job in the Hercules source directory. You would run this JCL on your mainframe.

The resulting AWSTAPE mainframe file can then be downloaded in binary format to your PC where Hercules is running, where it can then be defined as a Hercules virtual tape drive in your Hercules configuration file.

A standalone program could then be IPLed on Hercules to restore the volume image from the virtual tape onto the formatted Hercules DASD volume.


Building a DASD volume from unloaded PDS files

dasdload / dasdload64

The dasdload program can be run from the Unix shell prompt to create a new DASD image file and load it with data from unloaded PDS files.

The format of the dasdload / dasdload64 command is:

        dasdload   [options] ctlfile outfile msglevel
        dasdload64 [options] ctlfile outfile msglevel

where [options] can be:

-z
Build compressed dasd image file using zlib.
-bz2
Build compressed dasd image file using bzip2.
-0
Build compressed dasd image file with no compression.
-lfs
Create only one very large output file (can exceed 2G).
-a
Build dasd image file that includes alternate cylinders.
-b
For a volume without IPL text, make the wait PSW written to the IPL1 record a BC-mode PSW. The default is to make the wait PSW an EC-mode PSW.
-m
For a volume without IPL text, make the wait PSW written to the IPL1 record enabled for machine checks. The default is to make the wait PSW disabled for machine checks.
ctlfile
is the name of the control file which specifies the datasets that are to be loaded onto the newly-created volume
outfile
is the name of the DASD image file to be created
msglevel
is a number from 0 to 5 which controls the level of detail of the messages issued during the load.

Note that dasdload's default for the wait PSW written to the IPL1 record have changed from earlier releases of Hercules. In the past, the wait PSW created by dasdload on volumes without IPL text was a BC-mode PSW enabled for machine check interrupts. The current default for the wait PSW is EC-mode, disabled for machine checks. To obtain the earlier behavior, run dasdload with the "-b" and "-m" flags.

Control file

The control file required by the dasdload /dasdload64 program is an ASCII text file consisting of a volume statement followed by one dataset statement for each dataset to be created.

The format of the volume statement is:

        volser devtype[-model] [cyls [ipltext] ]

where:

volser
is the volume serial number for the newly-created volume
devtype
is the emulated device type (2311, 2314, 3330, 3340, 3350, 3375, 3380, or 3390) for the new volume. FBA device types are not supported by the dasdload / dasdload64 program. Model may be specified like dasdinit / dasdinit64 above.
cyls
is the size of the new volume in cylinders. If cyls is coded as * or as 0 or is omitted, then the default size for the device type and model is used.
ipltext
is an optional parameter specifying the name of a file containing the IPL text which will be written to the volume. The file must be in the form of an object deck containing fixed length 80-byte EBCDIC records in the same format as expected by IBCDASDI or ICKDSF.

The format of a dataset statement is:

        dsname method units pri sec dir dsorg recfm lrecl blksize keylen

where:

dsname
is the dataset name
method
is the dataset loading method which can be one of the following:
XMIT filename
the dataset is loaded from an unloaded PDS created by the TSO XMIT command
SEQ filename
the sequential dataset is loaded from a binary file. ascii/ebcdic translation is not currently supported. Also, the dsorg must either be PS or DA and recfm must either be F or FB.
EMPTY
the dataset is initialized with an end of file record (if DSORG is PS) or an empty PDS directory (if DSORG is PO)
DIP
the dataset is initialized with a LOGREC header record
CVOL
the dataset is initialized as an OS SYSCTLG containing the minimum entries needed to IPL an OS/360 system
VTOC
specifies the size and location of the VTOC. A dataset name must be coded on this statement, although it is not used. If no VTOC statement is present, the VTOC will be placed after the last dataset on the volume and the size of the VTOC will be the minimum number of tracks necessary.
units
is the space allocation units: TRK or CYL.
pri
is the space allocation primary quantity
sec
is the space allocation secondary quantity
dir
is the number of directory blocks
dsorg
is the dataset organization: PS, PO, DA, or IS,
recfm
is the record format: F, FB, FBS, V, VB, VBS, or U.
lrecl
is the logical record length
blksize
is the block size
keylen
is the key length

All parameters except dsname and method are optional. Defaults of zero are supplied for DCB parameters. For datasets loaded with the XMIT method, the DCB parameters are taken from the unloaded PDS, and the minimum space allocation required to load the dataset is used unless a larger quantity is specified. If space allocation is omitted, the default is TRK 1 0 0. If CYL is specified without any primary quantity then the default space allocation is 1 cylinder or the minimum number of cylinders required to load the dataset, whichever is larger.

Example 1:

To create a 2314 volume in a file called sysres.230 using the control file sysres.plf with message level 2:

    dasdload sysres.plf sysres.230 2

An example control file is shown below:

    #
    # Pack layout file for MFT system residence volume
    #
    sysres 2314 * ieaipl00.rdr
    sys1.parmlib    xmit    /cdrom/os360/reslibs/parmlib.xmi
    sys1.imagelib   xmit    /cdrom/os360/reslibs/imagelib.xmi
    sysctlg         cvol    trk 1 0 0       ps f 256 256 8
    sysvtoc         vtoc    trk 5
    sys1.logrec     dip     trk 1 0 0
    sys1.nucleus    xmit    /cdrom/os360/reslibs/nucleus.xmi cyl
    sys1.svclib     xmit    /cdrom/os360/reslibs/svclib.xmi cyl
    sys1.sysjobqe   empty   cyl 2 0 0       da f 176 176 0
    sys1.dump       empty   cyl 10 0 0      ps u 0 3625 0

Example 2:

To create a compressed 3390-3 volume in a file called linux.500 containing a bootable linux system for linux/390 installation using the control file linux.prm:
    dasdload -z linux.prm linux.500

An example control file is shown below:

    #
    #   Build a bootable linux disk
    #
    #   [Note: the dataset names (sys1.linux...) are hard-coded in
    #    linuxipl.obj and cannot be changed without rebuilding it]
    #
    linux  3390-3 * linuxipl.obj
    sys1.linux.parmfile    SEQ images/redhat.prm trk   1 0 0 ps fb 1024 1024
    sys1.linux.tapeipl.ikr SEQ images/kernel.img trk 200 0 0 ps fb 1024 1024
    sys1.linux.initrd      SEQ images/initrd.img trk 200 0 0 ps fb 1024 1024

Fixing the XCTL tables in SVCLIB

DASDISUP:   IEHIOSUP

On an OS/360 system, the Open/Close/EOV modules in SYS1.SVCLIB have XCTL tables embedded within them. These tables contain TTRs pointing to other modules, and these TTRs need to be adjusted after loading SVCLIB to DASD. OS/360 provides a program called IEHIOSUP to perform this function, but the catch-22 situation is that you can't run IEHIOSUP until you have the system up and running, and you can't IPL until you have fixed the XCTL tables!

To solve this dilemma, Hercules provides a program called dasdisup which can be run from the Unix command line after running dasdload / dasdload64.

The format of the dasdisup command is:

        dasdisup outfile [sf=shadow-file-name]

where

outfile
is the name of the DASD image file to be updated
shadow-file-name
(optional) is the name of the associated shadow file as specified in the Hercules config file

Note: do not use this procedure except on OS/360 IPL volumes! Other operating systems do not have XCTL tables!


Other DASD utilities

These programs can be used to extract data from CKD DASD images by means of commands issued at the Unix shell prompt.

DASDLS:   List datasets on volume

DASDLS, written by Malcolm Beattie and enhanced by others, is a command to let you list the names of the datasets contained in disk images.

The command format is:

        dasdls [-option [-option ... ]] ckdfile [sf=sfile] [...]

where ckdfile is the name of a Unix file containing a CKD volume and sfile (optional) is the name of the associated shadow file.

-option can be:

-hdr
show column headers
-dsnl [=n]
restrict dsname width
-info
show F1 info
-caldt
calendar date format
-refdt
show last-reference date
-expdt
show expiry date
-yroffs [=n]
year offset

Note: Multiple images can be processed in the same run, but options must be specified ahead of each image.

DASDCAT:   Display PDS members

DASDCAT, written by Malcolm Beattie, is a command to let you read datasets from disk images.

The command format is:

        dasdcat -i ckdfile [sf=shadow-file-name] dsname1 dsname2 ... -i ckdfile2 dsname10 ...

where ckdfile is the name of a Unix file containing a CKD volume, shadow-file-name (optional) is the name of the associated shadow file, and dsname can be a plain (non-partitioned) dataset name (which is currently not handled) or of the form pdsname/memname where memname can be:

Examples:

    % dasdcat -i mvtres.350 sf= mvtres_1.350 'sys1.parmlib/?'

    ieabld00
    ieaige00
    ieaigg00
    ieaigg01
    iearsv00
    ikjprm00
    lnklst00
    presres
    smfdeflt

    % dasdcat -i mvtres.350 sys1.parmlib/smfdeflt:c

     OPT=2, SYSTEM,JOB AND STEP DATA COLLECTION
     EXT=YES, USER EXITS ARE TO BE TAKEN
     JWT=15, MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS WAIT TIME IS 15 MINS.PER STEP
     BUF=400, A MINIMUM 400 BYTE BUFFER IS DEFINED
     SID=6A, SYSTEM ID IS 6A
     MDL=65, MODEL IS MOD 65
     OPI=YES, PERMIT OPERATOR INTERVENTION
     MAN=ALL, RECORD USER AND SYSTEM RECORDS
     PRM=(,282,NL) SYS1.MAN ALLOCATED TO NON-LABELED TAPE

    % dasdcat -i mvtres.350 sys1.help/\*:c

    > Member ACCOUNT
    | )S SUBCOMMANDS -
    | ADD/A,CHANGE/C,DELETE/D,LIST/L,LISTIDS/LISTI,HELP/H,END
    | )F FUNCTION -
    | THE ACCOUNT COMMAND PROCESSOR INVOKES THE CONVERSATIONAL PROGRAMS
    ...
    > Member ALLOC
    | )F FUNCTION -
    | THE ALLOCATE COMMAND DYNAMICALLY DEFINES AND ALLOCATES A DATA SET
    | WITH OR WITHOUT AN ATTRIBUTE LIST OF DCB PARAMETERS
    | )X SYNTAX -
    | ALLOCATE DATASET('DSNAME'/*) FILE('DDNAME')
    ...

DASDPDSU:   Unload PDS members

DASDPDSU is a command which unloads PDS members from a disk image and copies each member to a file memname.mac in the current working directory.

The command format is:

        dasdpdsu ckdfile [sf=shadow-file-name] pdsname [ASCII] [odir]

where ckdfile is the name of a file containing a CKD volume, shadow-file-name (optional) is the name of the associated shadow file, and pdsname is the name of a PDS on that volume. If the optional ASCII keyword is specified, the members will be unloaded as ASCII variable length text files. Otherwise the members are unloaded as fixed length EBCDIC binary files. The optional odir parameter is the name of the directory where the output files should be placed. Otherwise if not specified they are created in the current directory.


If you have a question about Hercules, see the Hercules Frequently-Asked Questions page.


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