Hercules Version 4: Configuration File

This page describes the configuration file for the Hercules S/370, ESA/390, and z/Architecture emulator.

The configuration file hercules.cnf contains the processor and device layout. It is roughly equivalent to the IOCDS on a real System/390. The configuration file is an ASCII text file.

Example configuration file

Please note that the below example configuration file should not be considered a good example of how an actual configuration file should look! It is only meant to illustrate what some of the supported configuration file statements look like and how they are used.




    ####################################################################
    #                HERCULES EMULATOR CONTROL FILE                    #
    #             (Note: not all parameters are shown)                 #
    ####################################################################


    #------------------------------------------------------------------
    #                       SYSTEM PARAMETERS
    #------------------------------------------------------------------

    ##ARCHMODE   ESA/390                                  (deprecated)
    ##ASN_AND_LX_REUSE  disable                           (deprecated)

    ARCHLVL    ESA/390
    FACILITY   ENABLE 044_PFPO

    PGMPRDOS   restricted
    ECPSVM     no  notrap

    OSTAILOR   OS/390
    LOADPARM   0120....

    CPUSERIAL  000611
    CPUMODEL   3090
    CPUVERID   FD
    LPARNAME   HERCULES
    LPARNUM    01
    CPUIDFMT   1
    MODEL      EMULATOR
    PLANT      ZZ
    MANUFACTURER HRC

    MAINSIZE   1G
    XPNDSIZE   0
    NUMCPU     4
    NUMVEC     0
    MAXCPU     8
    ENGINES    CP,CP,AP,IP

    SYSEPOCH   1900
    YROFFSET   -28
    TZOFFSET   -0500

    HTTP       PORT   8081  NOAUTH
    HTTP       ROOT   /usr/local/share/hercules/
    HTTP       START

    MODPATH    /usr/local/hercules
    LDMOD      dyncrypt
    NETDEV     /dev/net/tun

    CCKD       NOSFD=1
    SHRDPORT   3990

    PANTITLE   "My own private MAINFRAME!"
    PANRATE    FAST
    LOGOPT     TIMESTAMP
    CODEPAGE   default
    CNSLPORT   3270
    CONKPALV   (3,1,10)
    LEGACYSENSEID   OFF

    TIMERINT   DEFAULT
    TODDRAG    1.0
    DEVTMAX    8

    SHCMDOPT   disable  nodiag8
    DIAG8CMD   disable  noecho
    CMDSEP     OFF

    DEFSYM     TAPEDIR   "$(HOME)/tapes"
    AUTOMOUNT  $(TAPEDIR)
    AUTOMOUNT  +/tapes
    AUTOMOUNT  -/tapes/vault

    MOUNTED_TAPE_REINIT  allow
    AUTOINIT   on
    SCSIMOUNT  no

    INCLUDE    mydevs.cfg
    IGNORE     INCLUDE_ERRORS
    INCLUDE    optdevs.cfg


    #------------------------------------------------------------------
    #                     DEVICE STATEMENTS
    #             (see supported device types table)
    #------------------------------------------------------------------

    0009      3215-C  /

    000A      1442    adrdmprs.rdr
    000C      3505    jcl.txt     ascii  trunc
    000D      3525    pch00d.txt  ascii
    000E      1403    prt00e.txt  append       cctape=legacy
    001E      3211    192.168.200.1:1403 sockdev  fcb=legacy

    001F      3270    * 192.168.0.1
    0200.4    3270    * 192.168.0.0  255.255.255.0
    0220.8    3270    GROUP1  192.168.100.0  255.255.255.0
    0228.8    3270    GROUP2
    0230.16   3270

    0000      SYSG    SYSGCONS

    0100      3390    disks/linux.dsk  sf=shadows/linux_*.dsk

    0120      3380    ${DASD_PATH=dasd/}mvsv5r.120
    0121      3380    ${DASD_PATH=dasd/}mvsv5d.121
    0122      3380    ${DASD_PATH=dasd/}mvswk1.122
    0123      3380    192.168.1.100

    0140      3370    dosres.140
    0141      3370    syswk1.141
    0300      3370    sysres.300

    0A00.3    QETH    chpid F0  iface /dev/net/tun  ipaddr 192.168.0.4  netmask 255.255.0.0
    0440.2    LCS     -n   /dev/net/tun   192.168.200.2
    0420.2    CTCI    192.168.200.1  192.168.200.2
    0430.2    CTCI    tun0
    0E40      CTCE    31880  192.168.1.202  32880
    0E41      CTCE    31882  192.168.1.202  32882
    0460.2    PTP     192.168.200.1  192.168.200.2/24
    0470.2    PTP     tun0

    0580      3420    ickdsf.aws  noautomount
    0581      3420    /cdrom/tapes/uaa196.tdf
    0582-0587 3420    $(TAPEDIR)/volumes.$(CUU) maxsizeM=170 eotmargin=131072

    0590      3590    \\.\Tape0   # SCSI  (Windows only)
    0591      3590    /dev/nst0   # SCSI  (Linux or Windows)
    0592      3490    /dev/nst1 --no-erg --blkid-32   # Quantum DLT SCSI

    0020      2703    lport=32003 dial=IN lnctl=tele2 uctrans=yes term=tty skip=88C9DF iskip=0A
    0023      2703    lport=3780 rhost=localhost rport=3781 dial=no
    0045      2703    lport=32003 dial=IN lnctl=ibm1 term=2741 skip=5EDE code=ebcd


Comment lines

Blank lines, and lines beginning with a # sign or an asterisk, are treated as comments.


System parameters

Except for the ARCHLVL and LPARNUM statements, system parameter statements may appear in any order but must precede any device statements. Each system parameter must be on a separate line. The following system parameters may be specified:

ARCHLVL   S/370 | ESA/390 | ESAME | z/Arch

Specifies the initial architecture mode:

When z/Arch or ESAME is specified, the machine will always IPL in ESA/390 mode, but is capable of being switched into z/Architecture mode after IPL. This is handled automatically by all z/Architecture operating systems.

When ARCHLVL S/370 is set, the current LPARNUM and CPUIDFMT settings will be automatically changed to BASIC. When ARCHLVL z/Arch is set, LPARNUM and CPUIDFMT will be reset back to 1 and 0 respectively (if needed). Refer to the "Limited automatic LPARNUM updating when setting certain architecture modes" section of the Release Notes document for more information.

The ARCHLVL statement used to be called ARCHMODE in previous versions of Hercules but the use of ARCHMODE has been deprecated in favor of the new ARCHLVL statement. Existing ARCHMODE statements should be changed to ARCHLVL instead. For the time being however, ARCHMODE is still accepted and is treated as simply a synonym for the ARCHLVL statement.

ASN_AND_LX_REUSE   ENABLE | DISABLE       (deprecated)

Specifies whether the ASN-and-LX-Reuse Facility (ALRF) should be enabled or disabled. The default is enabled. This is a z/Architecture-only feature which is always disabled by default for S/390 or ESA/390.

Set this value to ENABLE  (or do not specify anything at all) if your guest operating system supports or expects this feature. Set it to DISABLE  if your guest operating system does not support this z/Architecture feature, and it inadvertently sets CR0 bit 44 to 1, usually leading to unexpected program interrupt when instructions such as LASP are issued.

ASN_AND_LX_REUSE may be abbreviated as ALRF.

Note: The ASN_AND_LX_REUSE statement has been superseded by "FACILITY ENABLE/DISABLE 006_ASN_LX_REUSE" and is thus deprecated. Existing ASN_AND_LX_REUSE or ALRF statements should be changed to use the new ARCHLVL facility statement format instead.

AUTOINIT   ON | OFF

The AUTOINIT option controls whether device files for emulated tape volumes should be automatically created or not.

When AUTOINIT is ON, a devinit command specifying a file that does not yet exist causes the tape driver to automatically create an empty unlabeled tape volume consisting of just two tapemarks when it discovers the specified file does not exist yet. When AUTOINIT is OFF a devinit command instead fails with an expected "file not found" error. For convenience the default setting is ON.

AUTOMOUNT   [±]directory

Specifies the host system directory where the guest is allowed or not allowed to automatically load virtual tape volumes from. Prefix allowable directories with a '+' plus sign and unallowable directories with a '-' minus sign. The default prefix if neither is specified is the '+' plus sign (i.e. an allowable directory).

Caution:  Enabling this feature may have security consequences depending on which allowable host system directories you specify as well as how your guest operating system enforces authorized use of the Set Diagnose (X'4B') channel command code.

All host system virtual tape volumes to be "automounted" by the guest must reside within one of the specified allowable host system directories or any of its subdirectories while not also being within any of the specified unallowable directories or any of their subdirectories, in order for the guest-invoked automount to be accepted.

Note: specifying a disallowed automount directory does not preclude the Hercules operator from manually mounting any desired file via the devinit panel command -- even one in a currently defined "disallowed" automount directory. The AUTOMOUNT statement only controls guest-invoked automatic tape mounts and not manual tape mounts performed by the Hercules operator.

All directories must be specified on separate statements, but as many statements as needed may be specified in order to describe the desired allowable/unallowable directories layout. For convenience, an automount panel command is also provided to dynamically add/remove new/existing allowable/unallowable automount directories at any time.

The automount feature is activated whenever you specify at least one allowable or unallowable directory. If only unallowable directories are specified, then the current directory becomes the only defined allowable automount directory by default.

All specified directories are always resolved to fully-qualified absolute directory paths before being saved.

Refer to the description of the virtual tape device 'noautomount' option for more information.

CCKD   cckd-parameters

The CCKD command and initialization statement can be used to affect cckd processing. The CCKD initialization statement is specified as a Hercules configuration file statement and supports the same options as the cckd panel command. Refer to the Compressed Dasd Emulation web page for more information.

CMDSEP   OFF | c

A command line separator character allows multiple commands to be entered on a single line. The character 'c' defines the command separator character. The values '.' (period or dot), '!' (exclamation mark or bang) and '-' (dash or hypen) are reserved and cannot be used. The default value is 'OFF' indicating command separation is disabled.

Warning: choose your separator character carefully. Setting it to an alphabetic value for example disables all commands containing that character. Setting it to 'e' for example will disable the 'exit' command making it impossible to exit the emulator. Similarly, setting it to 'o' or 'f' will make it impossible to disable command separation once enabled, and setting it to '#' (hash) will prevent lines with comments from being processed correctly.

CMPSCPAD   alignment

The CMPSCPAD command and initialization statement is used to define the zero padding storage alignment boundary for the CMPSC-Enhancement Facility. It must be a power of 2 value ranging anywhere from 1 to 12.

CNSLPORT   nnnn     -or-    host:port

Specifies (typically) the port number (in decimal) to which tn3270 and telnet clients should connect. If an invalid value is specified Hercules defaults to port 3270.

The CNSLPORT statement may also be specified as host:port, where host identifies the IP address of the host interface the telnet console server should bind to (listen for connections on). If not specified the server will accept connections from any host interface.

See the Telnet/tn3270 Console How-To for additional information about setting up a telnet or tn3270 client.

CODEPAGE   mapping

Specifies the codepage conversion mapping table used for ASCII/EBCDIC translation.

default specifies traditional Hercules codepage mapping.

Other supported predefined codepage mappings are:

Mapping Description Transparent?
ASCII EBCDIC
437/037 437 PC United States 037 United States/Canada
no
437/500 437 PC United States 500 International
no
437/1047 437 PC United States 1047 Open Systems Latin 1
no
819/037 819 ISO-8859-1 037 United States/Canada
YES
819/037v2 819 ISO-8859-1 037 United States/Canada version 2
YES
819/273 819 ISO-8859-1 273 Austria/Germany
YES
819/277 819 ISO-8859-1 277 Denmark/Norway
YES
819/278 819 ISO-8859-1 278 Finland/Sweden
YES
819/280 819 ISO-8859-1 280 Italy
YES
819/284 819 ISO-8859-1 284 Spain
YES
819/285 819 ISO-8859-1 285 United Kingdom
YES
819/297 819 ISO-8859-1 297 France
YES
819/500 819 ISO-8859-1 500 International
YES
819/1047 819 ISO-8859-1 1047 Open Systems Latin 1
YES
850/273 850 PC Latin 1 273 Austria/Germany
YES
850/1047 850 PC Latin 1 1047 Open Systems Latin 1
no
1252/037 1252 Windows Latin 1 037 United States/Canada
no
1252/037v2 1252 Windows Latin 1 037 United States/Canada version 2
no
1252/1047 1252 Windows Latin 1 1047 Open Systems Latin 1
no
1252/1140 1252 Windows Latin 1 1140 United States/Canada with Euro
YES
ISOANSI/037 ISO ANSI 037 United States/Canada
YES

The transparency column indicates whether translating from ASCII to EBCDIC (or vice versa) and back again yields results identical to the original text.

If no codepage is specified then the environment variable HERCULES_CP will be inspected. If the environment variable is not found then the traditional non-transparent default codepage mapping is used.

Other codepages can be defined by means of the cp_updt panel command (which is supported as a configuration file statement as well). Enter the panel command help cp_updt for more information.

CONKPALV   (idle,intv,count)

Specifies the tn3270 console and telnet clients keepalive option values that control automatic detection of disconnected tn3270/telnet client sessions.

idle  specifies the number of seconds of inactivity until the first keepalive probe is sent (idle time until first probe, or probe frequency).
intv   specifies the interval in seconds between when successive keepalive packets are sent if no acknowledgement is received from the previous one (i.e. the timeout value of the probes themselves).
count  specifies the number of unacknowledged keepalive packets sent before the connection is considered to have failed.

The default values for Windows are 3, 1, and 10. For non-Windows systems it is 3, 1, and 9. That is, send the initial probe 3 seconds after the connection goes idle and then wait no more than one second for it to be responded to. If it is not responded to within one second, then send up to 9 more probes (for a total of 10), each of which must also timeout without being responded to before the client is considered as having died and the connection thus automatically closed.

Note: This is a built-in feature of TCP/IP and allows detection of unresponsive TCP/IP connections and not idle clients. That is to say, your connection will not be terminated after 3 seconds of idle time. Your 3270 session can remain idle for many minutes or hours or days without any data being transmitted. If the TCP/IP stack at the other end of the connection -- not your 3270 client itself -- fails to respond to the internal keepalive probe packets however, then it means that the TCP/IP stack itself is down or there has been a physical break in the connection.

Thus, even if your 3270 client is completely idle, your system's TCP/IP stack itself should still respond to the keepalive probes sent by the TCP/IP stack at the Hercules end of the link. If it doesn't, then TCP/IP will terminate the tn3270/telnet session which will cause Hercules to disconnect the terminal.

The three values can also be modified on-demand via the conkpalv panel command, which has the exact same syntax. Note that the syntax is very unforgiving: no spaces are allowed anywhere within the parentheses and each value must be separated from the other with a single comma.

Please also note that not all systems support being able to modify all three values. That is, not all values may be modifiable. It is operating system dependent which values you can change and which values you cannot. On Windows for example, the count value is ignored and cannot be changed from its default value of 10. Other systems may ignore one or more or all three values and use platform defaults instead. This is entirely system dependent. Check your system's documentation for details regarding which values can be changed and which cannot as well as how to adjust your system's default values.

CPUIDFMT   0 | 1 | BASIC

Specifies the format of the CPU ID the STIDP instruction should store. Refer to the LPARNUM statement for more information.

CPUMODEL   0586 | xxxx

Specifies the 4 hexadecimal digit CPU machine type number (known prior to ESA/390 as the model number) stored by the STIDP instruction.

Note: Hercules makes no attempt to emulate all aspects of, or features of, a given CPU model. The CPUMODEL statement defines a purely cosmetic value only. It defines only the value that the STIDP (Store CPU ID) instruction stores, and nothing more.

CPUSERIAL   000001 | xxxxxx

Specifies the 6 hexadecimal digit CPU serial number stored by the STIDP instruction. In BASIC mode, the high-order digit may be replaced with the processor number when MAXCPU > 1; in LPAR mode, the two high-order digits are replaced with either the LPAR number or the CPU number and LPAR number with the full serial number available via the STSI instruction. The default serial number is 000001.

CPUVERID   FD | xx

Specifies the 2 hexadecimal digit CPU version code stored by the STIDP instruction when the architecture mode is S/370 or ESA390. When the architecture mode is z/Arch the version code is always stored as 00 and the value specified here is ignored. The default version code is FD unless changed.

DEFSYM   symbol value

Defines symbol symbol as to contain value value. The symbol can then be the object of a substitution later in the configuration file or for panel commands. If value contains blanks or spaces, then it should be enclosed in double quotation marks ("). See substitutions for a more in-depth discussion on this feature.

Substitution is available even in configuration statements, meaning it is possible to perform substitution in the DEFSYM statement itself. However, symbols are always defined as the last step in the process, so attempting to self define a symbol will result in an empty string:

    DEFSYM FOO $(FOO)
Will set symbol FOO to ""

DEVTMAX   -1 | 0 | nnn

Specifies the maximum number of device threads allowed.

Specify -1 to cause 'one time only' temporary threads to be created to service each I/O request to a device. Once the I/O request is complete, the thread exits. Subsequent I/O to the same device will cause another worker thread to be created again.

Specify 0 to cause an unlimited number of 'semi-permanent' threads to be created on an 'as-needed' basis. With this option, a thread is created to service an I/O request for a device if one doesn't already exist, but once the I/O is complete, the thread enters an idle state waiting for new work. If a new I/O request for the device arrives before the timeout period expires, the existing thread will be reused. The timeout value is currently hard coded at 5 minutes. Note that this option can cause one thread (or possibly more) to be created for each device defined in your configuration. Specifying 0 means there is no limit to the number of threads that can be created.

Specify a value from 1 to nnn  to set an upper limit to the number of threads that can be created to service any I/O request to any device. Like the 0 option, each thread, once done servicing an I/O request, enters an idle state. If a new request arrives before the timeout period expires, the thread is reused. If all threads are busy when a new I/O request arrives however, a new thread is created only if the specified maximum has not yet been reached. If the specified maximum number of threads has already been reached, then the I/O request is placed in a queue and will be serviced by the first available thread (i.e. by whichever thread becomes idle first). This option was created to address a threading issue (possibly related to the cygwin Pthreads implementation) on Windows systems.

The default for Windows is 8. The default for all other systems is 0.

DIAG8CMD   DISABLE | ENABLE   [ECHO | NOECHO]

When ENABLE is specified the Hercules Diagnose 8 instruction command interface is enabled, allowing the guest to directly issue Hercules commands via the Diagnose 8 instruction. When set to DISABLE all Diagnose 8 instructions cause a Specification Exception program interrupt to occur instead.

An optional second argument can be given to request whether an audit trail of such commands should be created or not. When ECHO is specified, a message is issued when the command is about to be issued, when the command is redisplayed (as is normally done when entered from the command line), as well as a final message indicating the command has finished executing. When NOECHO is specified no such audit trail messages are displayed and the command instead completes silently (except for whatever messages the command itself may issue).

Security Alert:  Enabling this feature has security consequences. When this feature is enabled it is possible for guest operating systems running under Hercules to issue commands directly to the host operating system by means of the sh (host shell command) and exec (execute Rexx script) commands. This ability may be disabled via the SHCMDOPT statement's NODIAG8 option.

The value of ECHO or NOECHO has no effect on whether or not command output will be placed into the Diagnose 8 instruction's response buffer if the instruction requested one, nor does it cause the resulting audit trail messages from being placed into the response buffer either. The ECHO option only impacts what is displayed on the hardware console (and what appears in the hardcopy logfile) but does not otherwise impact what is placed into the instruction's response buffer.

The default is DISABLE NOECHO

ECPSVM   YES | NO | LEVEL nn    [ TRAP | NOTRAP ]

Specifies whether ECPS:VM (Extended Control Program Support : Virtual Machine) support is to be enabled.

If YES is specified, then the support level reported to the operating system is 20. The purpose of ECPS:VM is to provide to the VM/370 Operating system a set of shortcut facilities to perform hypervisor functions (CP Assists) and virtual machine simulation (VM Assists).

Although this feature does not affect VM Operating system products operating in XA, ESA or z/Architecture mode, it will affect VM/370 and VM/SP products running under VM/XA, VM/ESA or z/VM.

Running VM/370 and VM/SP products under VM/XA, VM/ESA or z/VM should be done with ECPS:VM disabled. ECPS:VM should not be enabled in an AP or MP environment either. ECPS:VM has no effect on non-VM operating systems. It is however recommended to disable ECPS:VM when running native non-VM operating systems.

If a specific LEVEL is specified, this value will be reported to the operating system when it issues a Store ECPS:VM level, but it doesn't otherwise alter the ECPS:VM facility operations.

This is a partial (but mostly complete) implementation.

It is however not a 100% complete implementation.

Please refer to the README.ECPSVM document for more detailed information, including an explanation of the TRAP and NOTRAP options.

ENGINES   [nn*]CP|IL|AP|IP[,...]

Specifies the type of engine for each installed processor. The default engine type is CP.

nn* is an optional repeat count. Spaces are not permitted.

Examples:

ENGINES CP,CP,AP,IP
specifies that processor engines 0 and 1 are of type CP, engine 2 is type AP, and engine 3 is type IP.

ENGINES 4*CP,2*AP,2*IP
specifies that the first four processor engines (engines 0-3) are of type CP, the next two (engines 4-5) are of type AP, and the next two (engines 6-7) are of type IP.

The number of installed processor engines is determined by the MAXCPU statement. If the ENGINES statement specifies more than MAXCPU engines, the excess engines are ignored. If fewer than MAXCPU engines are specified, the remaining engines are set to type CP.

FACILITY   ENABLE | DISABLE | QUERY  facility  [archlvl]

Specifies a particular STFL/STFLE facility to be enabled or disabled, or a request to query of the current settings. Use QUERY ALL to obtain a list of valid facility  names that may be used for the given archlvl.

Alternatively, you can also specify the actual STFL/STFLE bit number to be turned off or on (disabled or enabled) using the format BITnn  where 'nn' corresponds to the exact STFL/STFLE facility bit you wish to be forced on or off. A popular one among the VM crowd is ENABLE BIT44 to force the PFPO (Perform Floating-Point Operation Facility) bit on, since, at the time of this writing, it is not currently supported or implemented by Hercules and is thus disabled by default. Specifying ENABLE BIT44 turns the bit on anyway allowing your VM system to IPL.

The optional archlvl  argument limits the enable, disable or query function to a specific architecture. It should be noted that attempts to enable or disable a facility that a given architecture does not support are accepted without error. The default value is the value that was set by a preceding ARCHLVL statement or the default mode if there was no preceding ARCHLVL statement.

HTTP   PORT   nnnn [[NOAUTH] | [AUTH userid password]]

Specifies the port number (in decimal) on which the HTTP server will listen. The port number must either be 80 or within the range 1024 - 65535 inclusive. The server is not start until a subsequent HTTP START statement is found.

AUTH indictates that a userid and password are required to access the HTTP server, whereas NOAUTH indicates that a userid and password are not required. The userid and password may be any valid string.

HTTP   ROOT   directory

Specifies the root directory where the HTTP server's files reside. If not specified, the default value for Win32 builds of Hercules is the directory where the Hercules executable itself is executing out of, and for non-Win32 builds it is the directory specified as the default package installation directory when the Hercules executable was built (which can vary depending on how the Hercules package was built, but is usually /usr/local/share/hercules/).

HTTP   START

Starts the HTTP server. (Note: The server is no longer started by default.)

IGNORE   INCLUDE_ERRORS

Indicates that errors caused by subsequent INCLUDE statements for files which do not exist should instead be ignored rather than causing startup to be aborted (as would otherwise normally occur).

INCLUDE   filepath

An INCLUDE statement tells Hercules configuration file processing to treat the contents of the file specified by filepath as if its contents had appeared in the configuration file at the point where the INCLUDE statement appears.

Note that the included file may itself contain yet another INCLUDE statement as long as the maximum nesting depth (current 8) is not exceeded.

IODELAY   usec

Specifies the amount of time (in microseconds) to wait after an I/O interrupt is ready to be set pending. This value can also be set using the Hercules console. The purpose of this parameter is to bypass a bug in the Linux/390 and zLinux dasd.c device driver. The problem is more apt to happen under Hercules than on a real machine because we may present an I/O interrupt sooner than a real machine.

NOTE : OSTAILOR LINUX no longer sets IODELAY to 800 since the problem described above is no longer present in recent versions of the Linux kernel.

LDMOD   module list

Specifies additional modules that are to be loaded by the Hercules dynamic loader. The default search order is with the hercules directory in the default DLL search path. Most systems also support absolute filenames (ie names starting with '/' or '.') in which case the default search path is not taken.

Multiple LDMOD statements may be used.

LEGACYSENSEID   OFF | DISABLE | ON | ENABLE

Specifies whether the SENSE ID CCW (X'E4') will be honored for the devices that originally didn't support that feature. This includes (but may not be limited to) 3410 and 3420 tape drives, 2311 and 2314 direct access storage devices, and 2703 communication controllers.

Specify ON or ENABLE if your guest operating system needs the Sense ID support to dynamically detect those devices. Note that most current operating systems will not detect those devices even though Sense ID is enabled because those devices never supported the Sense ID in the first place. So this mainly applies to custom built or modified versions of guest operating systems that are aware of this specific Hercules capability.

Because those legacy devices didn't originally support this command, and for compatibility reasons, the default is OFF or DISABLE.

LOADPARM   xxxxxxxx

Specifies the eight-character IPL parameter which is used by some operating systems to select system parameters.

LOGOPT   TIMESTAMP | NOTIMESTAMP

Sets Hercules log options. TIMESTAMP causes messages to the log to be time stamped. NOTIMESTAMP prevents time stamping of log messages. TIMESTAMP and NOTIMESTAMP may be abbreviated as TIME and NOTIME respectively. The current resolution of the stamp is one second.

The default is TIMESTAMP.

LPARNAME   name

Specifies the LPAR name returned by DIAG X'204'. The default is HERCULES.

LPARNUM   BASIC | 1 | xx

Specifies the one- or two-digit hexadecimal LPAR identification number stored by the STIDP instruction, or BASIC.

If a one-digit number from 1 to F (hexadecimal) is specified, then STIDP stores a format-0 CPU ID unless a subsequent CPUIDFMT 1 statement is specified.

If 0 or a two-digit hexadecimal number (except 10 hexadecimal) is specified, then STIDP stores a format-1 CPU ID. For LPARNUM 10 the current CPUIDFMT is not changed.

When LPARNUM is BASIC, then STIDP stores a basic-mode CPU ID (6-hexadecimal digit serial number when MAXCPU = 1, or a one-hexadeciaml digit CPU number and 5-hexadecimal digit serial number when MAXCPU > 1).

The LPARNUM setting will be automatically changed if needed to BASIC when ARCHLVL S/370 is set (which also changes the CPUIDFMT setting to BASIC too), and is automatically set to LPARNUM 1 (and CPUIDFMT 0) if needed when ARCHLVL z/Arch is set. Refer to the "Limited automatic LPARNUM updating when setting certain architecture modes" section of the Release Notes document for more information.

The default is LPARNUM 1 with a format-0 CPU ID.

MAINSIZE   nnnn | nnnK | nnnM | nnnG | nnnT | nnnP | nnnE

Specifies the main storage size in megabytes, where nnnn  is a decimal number. Or, nnnM  where M  is K - Kilobytes, M - Megabytes, G - Gigabytes, T - Terabytes, P - Petabytes, E - Exabytes. The default on startup is 2M.

For storage sizes less than 16M, sizes not on a 4K boundary are rounded up to the next 4K boundary. Otherwise, storage sizes not on a 1M boundary are rounded up to the next 1M boundary.

The minimum size is 4K for S/370 and ESA/390, and 8K for z/Arch. A maximum of 64M may be specified for S/370, 2048M (2G) for ESA/390, and 16E for z/Arch.

Notes:

  1. The actual upper limit is determined by your host system's architecture and operating system, the guest operating system, and the amount of physical memory and available paging space. The total of mainsize and xpndsize on host systems with a 32-bit architecture will be limited to less than 4G; host systems with a 64-bit architecture will be limited to less than 16E.
  2. Caution: using minimum storage sizes, storage sizes less than 64K or a size that is not a multiple of 64K for S/370, or a size less than 1M or is not a multiple of 1M for z/Arch is not recommended as it could generate error conditions which are not covered by the Principles of Operations.
  3. Use of storage sizes greater than supported by the guest operating system may generate incorrect results or error conditions within the guest operating system.

MANUFACTURER   name

Specifies the MANUFACTURER name returned the STSI instruction. The default is HRC.

MAXCPU   nn

Specifies the number of installed processor engines. The NUMCPU statement specifies the number of engines which will be configured online at startup time. All processors are CP engines unless otherwise specified by the ENGINES statement.

The value of MAXCPU cannot exceed the value of MAX_CPU_ENGINES. If MAXCPU is not specified in the Hercules configuration file, then its initial value is equal to NUMCPU. If MAXCPU and NUMCPU are both omitted, MAXCPU is set to 1.

MAX_CPU_ENGINES is a compile-time variable which sets an upper limit on the value of MAXCPU. The value of MAX_CPU_ENGINES is displayed in the Build information message on the Hercules control panel at startup time. To change the value of MAX_CPU_ENGINES you must rebuild Hercules. For Unix builds, specify ./configure --enable-multi-cpu=nn before performing make. For Windows builds, specify SET MAX_CPU_ENGINES=nn before performing nmake.

MAX_CPU_ENGINES cannot exceed 64. For performance reasons, values above 32 are not recommended for 32-bit platforms. If MAX_CPU_ENGINES is set to 1 then multiprocessing is disabled. See also NUMCPU for a discussion of the performance implications of MAX_CPU_ENGINES.

MODEL   hardware_model [ capacity_model ] [ perm_capacity_model ] [ temp_capacity_model ]

Specifies the MODEL names returned by the STSI instruction.

If two operands are supplied, the first is the hardware model name (CPC ND model) and the second is the capacity model name (CPC SI model). If only one operand is supplied, it is used as both the hardware model name and the capacity model name. The optional third and fourth operands specify the permanent capacity model name and the temporary capacity model name respectively.

The default is EMULATOR.

MODPATH   path

Specifies the relative or absolute path of the directory where dynamic modules should be loaded from. Only one directory may be specified. The path should be enclosed within double quotes if it contains any blanks.

When a modpath statement is specified, the path on the modpath statement is searched before the default path is searched. The system default varies depending on the host platform where Hercules is being run.

MOUNTED_TAPE_REINIT   DISALLOW | DISABLE | ALLOW | ENABLE

Specifies whether reinitialization of tape drive devices (via the devinit command, in order to mount a new tape) should be allowed if there is already a tape mounted on the drive.

Specifying ALLOW|ENABLE (default) indicates new tapes may be mounted (via 'devinit nnnn new-tape-filename') irrespective of whether or not there is already a tape mounted on the drive.

Specifying DISALLOW|DISABLE prevents new tapes from being mounted if one is already mounted. When DISALLOW is specified and a tape is already mounted on the drive, it must first be unmounted (via the command 'devinit nnnn *') before the new tape can be mounted. Otherwise the devinit attempt to mount the new tape is rejected.

This option is meant as a safety mechanism to protect against accidentally dismounting a tape from the wrong drive as a result of a simple typo (thereby cancelling a potentially important tape job) and was added by user request.

Also note that for SCSI tape drives the 'devinit nnnn *' command has no effect as the tape must be unmounted manually (since it is a real physical device and not one emulated via a disk file like .AWS tapes).

NETDEV   devname

Specifies the name (or for Windows, the IP or MAC address) of the underlying default host network adapter to be used for Hercules communications devices unless overridden on the device statement itself.

The default for Linux (except Apple and FreeBSD) is /dev/net/tun. The default for Apple and FreeBSD is /dev/tun.

The default for Windows is whichever host adapter that SoftDevLab's CTCI-WIN product returns as its "default host network adapter", which for older versions of CTCI-WIN (3.5.0 and earlier) is the first network adapter in the Windows host's binding order (which may not be desirable for some users). The NETDEV statement allows you to override this.

Refer to the 'Help' file included in newer versions of CTCI-WIN (version 3.6.0 or greater) for information regarding modifying Windows's "Adapter Binding Order" and/or defining a preferred CTCI-WIN default host network adapter.

NUMCPU   nn

Specifies the number of emulated processor engines which will be configured online at startup time. NUMCPU cannot exceed the value of MAXCPU. If NUMCPU is less than MAXCPU then the remaining engines can be configured online later. The default NUMCPU value is 1. The minimum value is 0.

Multiprocessor emulation works best if your host system actually has more than one physical CPU, but you can still emulate multiple CPUs nervertheless even on a uniprocessor system (and you might even achieve a small performance benefit when you do). There is little point, however, in specifying NUMCPU greater than 1 unless your guest operating system (running under Hercules) is actually able to support multiple CPUs (and if you do not actually need multiprocessor emulation, then setting MAX_CPU_ENGINES to 1 at compile time might even produce a slight performance advantage too).

NUMVEC   nn

Specifies the number of emulated vector facilities. Default is one per CPU. Only available by default in ESA/390 mode.

OSTAILOR   OS/390 | z/OS | VM | VSE | z/VSE | LINUX | OpenSolaris | QUIET | NULL

Specifies the intended operating system. The effect of this parameter is to reduce control panel message traffic by selectively suppressing trace messages for program checks which are considered normal in the specified environment. QUIET discards all exception messages. NULL allows all exception messages to be logged.

Optionally prefix any value except QUIET or NULL with '+' to cause the suppressions for that environment to be combined (added) to those already specified, or with '-' to remove such suppressions (i.e. to allow them).

If the OSTAILOR statement is omitted, exception messages for program checks 10, 11, 16, and 1C are suppressed.

Use the ostailor or pgmtrace panel commands to display or alter the current settings.

PANRATE   SLOW | FAST | nn

Specifies the panel refresh rate, in milliseconds between refreshes. SLOW is the same as 500, and FAST is the same as 50. A value less than the Linux system clock tick interval (10 on Intel, 1 on Alpha), or more than 5000, will be rejected. SLOW is the default.

PANTITLE   "title-string"

Specifies an optional console window title-bar string to be used in place of the default supplied by the windowing system. If the value contains any blanks it must be enclosed within double-quotes.

This option allows one to distinguish between different Hercules sessions when running more than one instance of Hercules on the same machine.

This option takes effect only when the Hercules console is displayed on an xterm terminal (commonly used on Unix systems), or in a Windows command prompt window. Note that this option has no effect when Hercules is run under control of the Hercules GUI since Hercules's console window is hidden in favor of using the GUI's window instead.

PGMPRDOS   RESTRICTED | LICENSED

Specifies whether or not Hercules will run licensed program product ESA or z/Architecture operating systems. If RESTRICTED is specified, Hercules will stop all CPUs when a licensed program product operating system is detected. Specify LICENSED to allow these operating systems to run normally. This parameter has no effect on Linux/390, Linux for z/Series, or any 370-mode OS.

NOTE:  It is YOUR responsibility to comply with the terms of the license for the operating system you intend to run on Hercules. If you specify LICENSED and run a licensed operating system in violation of that license, then don't come after the Hercules developers when the vendor sends their lawyers after you!

RESTRICTED is the default. Specifying LICENSED will produce a message when a licensed operating system is detected to remind you of your responsibility to comply with software license terms.

PLANT   name

Specifies the PLANT name returned by the STSI instruction. The default is ZZ.

SCSIMOUNT   NO | YES | nn

Specifies whether automatic detection of SCSI tape mounts are to be enabled or not.

Specifying NO or 0 seconds (the default) indicates the option is disabled, forcing all SCSI tape mounts to be done manually via an appropriate devinit command.

A value from 1 to 99 seconds inclusive enables the option and causes periodic queries of the SCSI tape drive to automatically detect when a new tape is mounted. Specifying YES  is the same as specifying 5 seconds.

The scsimount panel command may also be used to display and/or modify this value on demand once Hercules has been started. Note too that the scsimount panel command also lists any mounts and/or dismounts that may still be pending on the drive, as long as you've defined your tape drive as a model that has an LCD "display" (such as a model 3480, 3490 or 3590).

Note:  enabling this option may cause Hercules to take longer to shutdown depending on the value specified for this option as well as how the host operating system (Windows, Linux, etc) and associated hardware (SCSI adapter) behaves to drive status queries for drives which do not have any media currently mounted on them.

SHCMDOPT   DISABLE | ENABLE   [DIAG8 | NODIAG8]

When set to DISABLE, the sh (host shell command) and exec (Rexx execute script) commands are globally disabled and will result in an error if entered either directly via the hardware console or programmatically via the DIAG8CMD interface.

If the optional NODIAG8 option is specified, then only the programmatic execution of commands via the the Diagnose 8 interface are disabled, but shell and Rexx commands entered directly via the Hercules command line still work. This includes commands entered via the HTTP server facility as well as commands issued by .rc "run command" scripts too (automatically at startup or directly or indirectly via the script command).

Security Alert:  Enabling this feature has security consequences. When ENABLE DIAG8 is specified it is possible for guest operating systems running under Hercules to issue commands directly to the host operating system.

SHRDPORT   nnnn

Specifies the port number (in decimal) on which the Shared Device server will listen. Specifying SHRDPORT will allow other Hercules instances to access devices on this instance. (Currently only DASD devices may be shared). By default, the other Hercules instances (clients) will use port 3990. If you specify a different port number, then you will have to specify this port number on the device statement for the other Hercules clients. If no SHRDPORT statement is present then the Shared Device server thread will not be activated.

SYSEPOCH   yyyyyears]

Specifies the base date for the TOD clock. Use the default value (1900) for all systems except OS/360. Use 1960 for OS/360. Values other than these were formerly used to offset the TOD clock by a number of years to move the date before the year 2000 for non-Y2K-compliant operating systems. This use is deprecated, and support will be removed in a future release; at that time, only values of 1900 or 1960 will be accepted. Other values will produce a warning message with the equivalent values to specify in the SYSEPOCH statement.
An optional year offset may be specified, and will be treated as though it had been specified on a YROFFSET statement.

TIMERINT   DEFAULT | nnnn

Specifies the internal timers update interval, in microseconds. This parameter specifies how frequently Hercules's internal timers-update thread updates the TOD Clock, CPU Timer, and other architectural related clock/timer values. The default interval is 50 microseconds, which strikes a reasonable balance between clock accuracy and overall host performance. The minimum allowed value is 1 microsecond and the maximum is 1000000 microseconds (i.e. one second). Also note that due to host system limitations and/or design, some hosts might round or coalesce microsecond wait intervals up to a longer millisecond interval instead.

Caution:  While a lower TIMERINT value may help increase the accuracy of your guest's TOD Clock and CPU Timer values, it could also have a severe negative impact on the overall performance of your host operating system depending on the priority (or 'nice' value) of the Hercules process itself.

TODDRAG   n.nn

Specifies the TOD clock drag factor. This parameter can be used to slow down or speed up the TOD clock by a factor of nn. A significant slowdown can improve the performance of some operating systems which consume significant amounts of CPU time processing timer interrupts. A drag factor of 2.0 slows down the clock by 50%. A drag factor of 0.5 doubles the speed of the clock. A drag factor of 1.01 slows down the clock by 1%, and 0.99 speeds up the clock by 1%.

TRACEOPT   [TRADITIONAL | REGSFIRST | NOREGS]  [NOCH9OFLOW]

Sets the Hercules instruction and device tracing option(s).

TRADITIONAL (the default), displays the registers following the instruction about to be executed such that pressing the ENTER key (to execute the displayed instruction) then shows the next instruction to be executed followed by a display of the just updated registers.

REGSFIRST displays the current register contents followed by the instruction about to be executed such that pressing the ENTER key (to execute the displayed instruction) then shows the just updated registers followed by the next instruction about to be executed.

NOREGS suppresses the registers display altogether and shows just the instruction about to be executed.

NOCH9OFLOW suppresses CCW tracing of printer channel-9 overflow unit checks which are considered completely normal and not true device errors. The unit checks still occur, they are simply not traced unless CCW tracing is explicitly enabled on the device.

TZOFFSET   ±hhmm

Specifies the hours and minutes by which the TOD clock will be offset from the current system time. For GMT, use the default value (0000). For timezones west of Greenwich, specify a negative value (example: -0500 for US Eastern Standard Time, -0800 for US Pacific Standard Time). For timezones east of Greenwich, specify a positive value (example: +0100 for Central European Time, +0930 for South Australian Time).

XPNDSIZE   nnnn | nnnM | nnnG | nnnT | nnnP | nnnE

Specifies the expanded storage size in megabytes, where nnnn is a decimal number. Or, nnnM  where M  is K - Kilobytes, M - Megabytes, G - Gigabytes, T - Terabytes, P - Petabytes, E - Exabytes.

Storage sizes not on a 1M boundary are rounded up to the next 1M boundary. The lower limit and default is 0.

Notes:

  1. The actual upper limit is determined by your host system's architecture and operating system, the guest operating system, and the amount of physical memory and available paging space. The total of mainsize and xpndsize on host systems with a 32-bit architecture will be limited to less than 4G; host systems with a 64-bit architecture will be limited to less than 16E.
  2. Use of storage sizes greater than supported by the guest operating system may generate incorrect results or error conditions within the guest operating system.

YROFFSET   ±years

Specifies a number of years to offset the TOD clock from the actual date. Positive numbers will move the clock forward in time, while negative numbers will move it backward. A common value for non-Y2K-compliant operating systems is YROFFSET -28, which has the advantage that the day of the week and the presence or absence of February 29 is the same as the current year. This value may not be specified as greater than ±142 years, the total range of the TOD clock. Specifying a value that causes the computed TOD clock year to be earlier than the value of SYSEPOCH or more than 142 years later than that value will produce unexpected results.

A comment preceded by a # sign may be appended to any system parameter statement.


Symbol substitutions

In configuration and device statements, as well as in panel commands and OAT files, symbols may be substituted for text.

Syntax

To substitute symbol symbol with its contents, the symbol should be enclosed within parenthesis and preceded by a $ sign. For example, if symbol FOO contains the text string "BAR" then $(FOO) will be substituted with the string "BAR";. Symbol names are case sensitive.

Example
        DEFSYM  TAPEDIR  "/home/hercules/tapes"

        ...

        0380  3420  $(TAPEDIR)/scratch.aws

        ...

In this example, device 0380 will be a 3420 loaded with the AWS tape file in /home/hercules/tapes/scratch.aws

Special symbols

Device group symbols

When multiple devices are defined with a single device definition statement, then the symbols

  •   CUU  
  •   (3 digits device number, upper case hexadecimal digits)
  •   CCUU  
  •   (4 digits device number, upper case hexadecimal digits)
  •   DEVN  
  •   (4 digits device number, upper case hexadecimal digits)

    are defined to contain for each device the relevant device address. For example:

        0200,0201  3340  /home/hercules/dasds/myvols.$(CUU)
    

    will define two 3340 packs, with device 0200 being loaded with the file myvols.200 and device 0201 defined with myvols.201.

    Environment variables

    If a symbol is not explicitly defined by a DEFSYM statement and an environment variable by the same name exists, the string contents of that environment variable will be used for substitution.

    Undefined symbols

    If a symbol is not defined by an explicit DEFSYM, is not an automatically generated symbol and is not an environment variable, an empty string will be substituted.

    Escaping substitution, recursion

    To be able to specify the '$(' string without incurring substitution, an additional '$' sign should be used. For example, $$(FOO) will not be substituted. If substitution is required but the preceding text is to contain a '$' sign as the very last character, then $$$(FOO) should be specified. Thus, if symbol FOO contains "BAR", then $$(FOO) will remain "$$(FOO)" while $$$(FOO) will become "$BAR".

    Substitution is not recursive (only one substitution pass is made).


    Enhanced symbol substitutions

    Enhanced symbol substitution differs from the above normal symbol substitution in several very important ways:

    First, the syntax is different. Enhanced substitution symbol names are specified using ${var} (dollar + brace) rather than $(var) (dollar + parenthesis).

    Second, the enhanced syntax supports specifying a default value that is to be used instead whenever the name symbol is otherwise not defined. The default value is placed within the opening and closing braces just as the symbol name is, but separated from it by either a single equal sign '=' or a colon-equal-sign ':='.

    For example, specifying "${DASD_PATH=dasd/}" in your configuration file requests that the value of the "DASD_PATH" symbol or environment variable be substituted, or, if the variable is undefined, to use the value "dasd/" instead. If no default value is specified then an empty string is used instead.

    Finally, enhanced symbol substitution occurs only from host defined environment variables and not from any identically named DEFSYM symbol should one exist. For example, if environment variable 'FOO' is defined with the value "bar", then the configuration file statement "DEFSYM FOO myfoo" followed immediately by the statement "${FOO}" causes the value "bar" to be substituted and not 'myfoo' as might otherwise be believed, whereas the statement "$(FOO)", since it is a normal symbol substitution sequence does get replaced with "myfoo" (since that was the value defined to it via the preceding DEFSYM statement).

    In other words each symbol substitution technique is supported completely separately from one another. DEFSYM allows one to define/undefine/use private (internally defined) symbols separate from the host operating system's environment variable pool, whereas the enhanced symbol substitution does not and instead only allows read-only access to the host's environment variable pool with no support for modifying an already defined symbol (environment variable) but a nonethless convenient means of defining a default value to be used should the specified host environment variable be currently undefined.

    Further note that symbol names, being the names of environment variables, are subject to whatever case sensitivity or case insensitivity that the host operating system happens to enforce/allow. On Windows, environment variables are not case sensitive, whereas on other operating systems they may be. Thus "${FOO}", "${foo}", "${Foo}", etc, all cause the same value to be substituted on Windows, whereas the DEFSYM symbols $(FOO) and $(foo), being two completely different and unique symbols, could be substituted with two completely different values (since DEFSYM is case sensitive across all supported platforms, including Windows).

    Syntax

    To substitute symbol symbol with the current environment variable value, the symbol should be enclosed within braces and preceded by a $ sign. For example, if an environment variable named FOO holds the value "BAR", then ${FOO} will be substituted with the string "BAR". If the environment variable "FOO" is not defined then a null (empty) string is substituted instead.

    If the string "${FOO:=myfoo}" is used instead, then the value "BAR" will still be substituted if the value "BAR" was indeed previously assigned to FOO, but will be substituted with the value "myfoo" instead if the environment variable FOO is currently undefined.

    Note too that the default value is a literal string and no substitution is applied to it. Thus attempting to use the syntax "${foo=${bar}}" will not yield the expected results. It will not be substituted with the currently defined value of the "bar" environment variable, but rather will always be substituted with the literal string "${bar" followed immediately by the literal character '}'.

    Symbol names (environment variable names) are not case sensitive on Windows whereas they might be on other host operating systems.


    Process and Thread Priorities

    Process Priorities

    For Windows, the following conversions are used for translating Unix process 'nice' values to Windows process priority classes:

    'Nice'
    value

    Windows Process
    Priority Class

    Meaning
           
    -20 to -16   Real-time Process that has the highest possible priority. The threads of the process preempt the threads of all other processes, including operating system processes performing important tasks. For example, a real-time process that executes for more than a very brief interval can cause disk caches not to flush or cause the mouse to be unresponsive.
           
    -15 to -9   High Process that performs time-critical tasks that must be executed immediately. The threads of the process preempt the threads of normal or idle priority class processes. An example is the Task List, which must respond quickly when called by the user, regardless of the load on the operating system. Use extreme care when using the high-priority class, because a high-priority class application can use nearly all available CPU time.
           
    -8 to -1   Above Normal Process that has priority above the Normal class but below the High class.
           
    0 to +7   Normal Process with no special scheduling needs.
           
    +8 to +14   Below Normal Process that has priority above the Idle class but below the Normal class.
           
    +15 to +19   Idle Process whose threads run only when the system is idle. The threads of the process are preempted by the threads of any process running in a higher priority class. An example is a screen saver. The idle-priority class is inherited by child processes.

    Caution!  A high process priority (or low 'nice' value) could have a impact on how Hercules's internal thread priorities are interpreted, thereby impacting the overall performance of your host system.

    Thread Priorities

    The following are the currently assigned internal relative thread priorities for Hercules:

    Relative
    priority

    Thread
    Type

    Description
           
    1   (watchdog) The "watch dog" thread is the internal Hercules thread that monitors all CPU threads for a malfunctioning CPU (i.e. one that, due to a bug, has stopped executing instructions). The watch dog thread is always set to a relative priority one less than the priority assigned to the CPU threads.
           
    2   CPU The CPU threads are those within Hercules that actually execute the emulated System/370, ESA/390, or z/Architecture instructions. There is one CPU thread for each defined ENGINE. Except for the watch dog thread, CPU threads are always assigned the lowest relative priority of any thread within Hercules. This allows, for example, I/O requests to be scheduled and completed in favour of CPU cycles being burned.
           
    3   Device Device threads within Hercules manage the I/O requests to emulated devices. Assigning the internal relative priority of device threads to be higher than that of the CPU threads ensures no compute-bound CPU thread impacts Hercules's ability to start and complete its I/O requests to its emulated devices.
           
    4   Server Server threads are those threads that provide a service to either the user or to other threads internal to Hercules. Threads that monitor for incoming emulated display terminal connection requests for example (or the internal logger thread that manages the passing of messages between threads) are two examples of server threads. Such threads must react to connection requests and/or internal messages quickly since other threads are waiting for them to complete their task before they themselves can proceed.
           
    5   Panel The main Hercules thread is the one that reads commands from the keyboard and displays messages on the screen. Except for the TOD Clock and Timer thread, it should normally be the highest priority of any thread within Hercules.
           
    6   (unused) ---
           
    7   Timer TOD Clock and Timer thread is the thread which manages the internal emulated TOD Clock and CPU Timer components of your emulated mainframe. In order to ensure accurate time of day and elapsed time and/or CPU time measurement, it should always be the very highest priority thread within Hercules.

    Caution:  Hercules's internal thread priorities could be interpreted differently based on its process priority (or 'nice' value), thereby impacting the overall performance of your host system.


    Device statements

    The remaining statements in the configuration file are device statements. There must be one device statement for each I/O device or group of identical I/O devices. The format of the device statement is:

    devnum(s)   devtype   [ arguments ]   [ # comments... ]

    where the generic syntax for device numbers is   [n:]CCUU[,CCUU][-CCUU][.nn][...]   as explained below:

    devnum(s)

    is either a single devnum, a range of devnums (separated by a '-' (dash)), a count of devnums (separated by a '.' (dot/period/stop)), or a comma separated list of devnums. Examples would be 200-210 or 0300.10 or 0400,0403 or 0100,0110-011F.

    All devices defined when devnums specifies more than one device have identical characteristics (except for the device number itself). All devices defined as a group must be defined on a single channel. A channel is defined as a contiguous group of 256 (or hexadecimal 100) devices. 0010 and 0020 are on the same channels. 0100 and 0210 are not.

    See devnum immediately below for an explanation of how each device number is specified.

    The 4 special subtitution symbols CUU, CCUU, cuu and ccuu are also defined for each device in a device group. See substitutions for details.

    devnum

    is either a 1 to 4 digit hexadecimal number in the range 0000 to FFFF for ESA/390, or 0000 to 0FFF for S/370. The device number uniquely identifies each device to the operating system.

    Channel Set / Logical Channel Subsystem

    An optional Channel Set or Logical Channel Subsystem Identification can be specified for a device number or group of devices. The Identification number is specified at the beginning of the definition, followed by a ':' character. For example :

    1:0400-040F 3270

    defines 3270 devices 400 to 40F to be on S/370 Channel Set 1 or on S/390 or z/Architecture Logical Channel Subsystem # 1.

    Since each Logical Channel Subsystem defines its own device numbering space, care should be taken in S/370 mode as to define a coherent set of device numbers.

    Not all S/390 or z/Architecture operating systems support Multiple Logical Channel Subsystems (this feature was introduced with the z9-109).

    If no Channel Set or Logical Channel Subsystem Identification is specified, then it is assumed to be 0.

    devtype

    is the device type. Valid device types are shown in the table just below.

    arguments

    is a list of parameters whose meaning depends on the device type. The arguments required for each class of device are shown further below.

    # comments...

    A comment preceded by a # sign may be appended to any device definition statement.


     

    Supported Device Types

    Device type Description Emulated by
    3270, 3287 Local non-SNA 3270 display or printer TN3270 client connection
    SYSG Integrated 3270 console TN3270 client connection
    1052, 3215 Console printer-keyboards Telnet client connection
    1052-C, 3215-C Integrated console printer-keyboards Integrated on Hercules console
    1442, 2501, 3505 Card readers Disk file(s) (ASCII or EBCDIC)
    3525 Card punch Disk file (ASCII or EBCDIC)
    1403, 3203, 3211 Line printers Disk file (ASCII)
    3410, 3420, 3422, 3430, 3480, 3490, 3590, 9347, 8809 Tape drives Disk file, CDROM, or SCSI tape
       many Communication and Channel-to-Channel devices       many
    (( OSA )) OSA Express adapter operating on QDIO mode. Both layer-2 and layer-3 modes are supported. "QETH" (OSA/QDIO Ethernet Adapter)
    Tun/Tap Driver
    (( LCS )) IBM 8232 LCS device, LCS3172 driver of a P/390, IBM 2216 router, IBM 3172 running ICP. "LCS" (LAN Channel Station)
    Tun/Tap Driver
    (( CTCI )) Channel-to-Channel link to host TCP/IP stack "CTCI" Tun/Tap Driver
    (( CTCE )) Enhanced Channel-to-Channel Emulation
    via TCP connection (true 3088 CTCA)
    "CTCE" driver
    (( PTP )) MPCPTP/MPCPTP6 Channel to Channel link "PTP" Tun/Tap Driver
    3310, 3370, 9332, 9335, 9336, 0671 FBA direct access storage devices Disk file
    2305, 2311, 2314, 3330, 3340, 3350, 3375, 3380, 3390, 9345 CKD direct access storage devices Disk file
    2703 Communication Line, Remote Teletype, etc. TCP Socket


    Arguments required for each device type

    Local non-SNA 3270 devices

    There are no required arguments for this particular device type, but there are however several optional arguments which are discussed below.

    To use this device, a tn3270 client must connect to the host machine via the port number specified on the CNSLPORT statement. A valid tn3270 device type, such as IBM-3278, must be used. See the Telnet/tn3270 Console How-To for additional information about setting up a tn3270 client.

    If your tn3270 client software allows you to specify a device type suffix (e.g. IBM-3278@001F ), then you can use the suffix to connect to that specific device number, if eligible. If no suffix is specified, then your client will be connected to the first available 3270 device for which it is eligible, if any.

    If you specify a specific terminal device address (via the device type suffix of your tn3270 client software), then you must be eligible to connect at that device address or your connection is immediately rejected; an alternative terminal device for which you might be eligible is not automatically selected instead.

    Optional arguments:

    groupname

    If a terminal group name is given on the device statement, a device type suffix with this group name can be used to indicate that a device in this group is to be used. If a group name is specified as a terminal type suffix (e.g. IBM-3278@GROUPNAME ) and there are no devices defined for that group (or there are no more available devices remaining in that group), then the connection is rejected. If no group name is specified as a terminal type suffix, then the connection will only be eligible for any terminal devices which do not have a group name specified on their device statements. The terminal group name, if specified, should be 1 to 8 alphanumeric characters, the first character being alphabetic, and it should not be a hexadecimal number. Upper and lower case letters in the group name are considered to be equivalent.

    ipaddr [ mask ]

    The optional IP address and optional subnet mask specify the IP address(es) of which client(s) are allowed to connect at the device address identified by the device statement on which they appear. This provides an alternative and/or additional means of specifying to which device(s) a client tn3270 session may, or should, connect.

    If the IP address of the tn3270 client trying to connect, when 'and'ed with the optional subnet mask (which defaults to 255.255.255.255 if not specified), matches the IP address entered on the device statement, then the client is eligible to connect at that device address. Otherwise the client is ineligible to connect at that address and the next available device, if any, for which the client is eligible to connect (if any) is selected instead.

    If no permissible terminal devices remain (i.e. terminal devices for which the client is eligible to connect), or there are no more available terminal devices remaining, then the client connection is rejected.

    The optional IP address and subnet mask may also be specified in conjunction with the previously mentioned terminal group argument, but the terminal group argument, if specified, must be specified ahead of (i.e. before) the optional IP address and subnet mask arguments. To specify an IP address and subnet mask without also specifying a terminal group, simply use '*' as the group name instead.

    If an IP address / subnet mask are not specified, then any client tn3270 session is allowed to connect to the device (provided they are also a member of the specified terminal group, if any).

    The terminal group name argument, if specified, always takes precedence over any optional IP address and subnet mask which may also be specified.

    To summarize, the device number suffix always takes precedence over any group name which may also be specified, and any group name, if specified, always takes precedence over any IP address / subnet mask value which may also be specified.


    Integrated 3270 console device   (SYSG)

    The integrated 3270 (SYSG) console is similar to a local non-SNA 3270 device, except that it is not addressed by subchannel number and it is supported only by certain system control programs. The SYSG console is defined like a 3270 device except that the device type is SYSG and the device number is ignored. Only one SYSG console can be defined in a configuration.

    Use tn3270 client software to connect to the SYSG console device via the port number specified on the CNSLPORT statement, just as you would connect to a regular local non-SNA 3270 device. See the Telnet/tn3270 Console How-To for additional information about setting up a tn3270 client.

    The SYSG console configuration statement recognizes optional arguments which specify group name and IP address in the same way as previously described for a local non-SNA 3270 device. These optional arguments provide a means to ensure that a given tn3270 client can connect directly to the SYSG console. If the group name and IP address arguments are not specified, then the SYSG console is considered to be a member of the general pool of devices eligible for connection to any incoming tn3270 client.


    Integrated Console printer-keyboard devices   (-C)

    There are two optional arguments: the command prefix argument and the optional noprompt argument.

    Since integrated console printer-keyboard devices use the Hercules HMC panel (Hardware Management Console) for all input and output, the command prefix is needed so Hercules can distinguish between input meant for the device and normal Hercules panel command input.

    All integrated console devices must use a different command prefix and must not be a subset or superset of any other device's command prefix. If one is not specified then the next available default is chosen from the following list:

            Hex     Glyph    Description
    
            0x2F      /       slash (default)
            0x5C      \       backslash
            0x60      `       backtick
            0x3D      =       equals
            0x7E      ~       tilde
            0x40      @       at sign
            0x24      $       dollar
            0x25      %       percent
            0x5E      ^       caret
            0x26      &       ampersand
            0x5F      _       underline
            0x3A      :       colon
            0x3F      ?       question
            0x30      0       zero
            0x31      1       one
            0x32      2       two
            0x33      3       three
            0x34      4       four
            0x35      5       five
            0x36      6       six
            0x37      7       seven
            0x38      8       eight
            0x39      9       nine

    If your command prefix was the '/' slash character for example, then to send a logon command to a 1052-C or 3215-C device, you would enter "/logon" on the Hercules console. Or, if your command prefix was "foo=" then you would enter "foo=logon", etc.

    When your guest operating system writes a message to an integrated console printer-keyboard device, the message displayed on the Hercules console is always prefixed with the device's command prefix string so you can distinguish it from messages written by other integrated console devices and/or Hercules itself.

    The second optional argument for integrated console printer-keyboard devices is the noprompt keyword. If not specified, then whenever the system is awaiting input on that device, the prompting message "Enter input for console device nnnn" is displayed on the Hercules console. The noprompt option suppresses this prompting message.


    Console printer-keyboard devices

    There are no required arguments for this particular device type, but there are however several optional arguments discussed below.

    To use this device, a telnet client must connect to the host machine via the port number specified on the CNSLPORT statement. See the Telnet/tn3270 Console How-To for additional information about setting up a telnet or tn3270 client.

    If your telnet client software allows you to specify a device type suffix (for example: ansi@0009 ), then you can use that suffix to specify the specific 1052 or 3215 device to which you wish to connect. If you do not specify a suffix in your telnet client software (or your software does not allow it), then your client will be connected to the first available 1052 or 3215 device for which it is eligible.

    An optional noprompt argument may be specified on the device statement to cause suppression of the "Enter input for console device nnnn" prompt message which is otherwise normally issued to the device whenever the system is awaiting input on that device.

    Additionally, a terminal group name, IP address and subnet mask may all also be optionally specified in the exact same manner as discussed in the previous Local non-SNA 3270 devices section with the exception that the "noprompt" option, if specified, must precede the other arguments.


    Card reader devices

    The argument specifies a list of file names containing card images. Additional arguments may be specified after the file names:

    sockdev

    Indicates the card reader is a socket device wherein the filename is actually a socket specification instead of a device filename. When used, there must only be one filename specified in the form: port or host:port or sockpath/sockname. The device then accepts remote connections on the given TCP/IP port or Unix Domain Socket, and reads data from the socket instead of from a device file. This allows automatic remote submission of card reader data. See the Hercules Socket Reader page for more details.

    eof

    Specifies that unit exception status is presented after reading the last card in the file. This option is persistent, and will remain in effect until the reader is reinitialized with the intrq option.

    intrq

    Specifies that unit check status with intervention required sense bytes is presented after reading the last card in the file. This option is persistent, and will remain in effect until the reader is reinitialized with the eof option.

    multifile

    Specifies, when multiple input files are entered, to automatically open the next input file and continue reading whenever EOF is encountered on a given file. If not specified, then reading stops once EOF is reached on a given file and an attention interrupt is then required to open and begin reading the next file.

    ebcdic

    Specifies that the file contains fixed length 80-byte EBCDIC records with no line-end delimiters.

    ascii

    Specifies that the file contains variable length lines of ASCII characters delimited by LF (line feed) sequences or CRLF (carraige return line feed) sequences at the end of each line.

    If neither EBCDIC nor ASCII is specified, then the device handler attempts to detect the format of the card image file when the device is first accessed. Auto-detection is not supported for socket devices, and the default is ASCII if sockdev is specified.

    trunc

    Specifies, for ASCII files, that lines longer than 80 characters are truncated instead of producing a unit check error.

    autopad

    Specifies, for EBCDIC files, that the file is automatically padded to a multiple of 80 bytes if necessary.


    Card punch devices

    The argument specifies the name of a file to which the punched output will be written. Additional arguments may be specified after the file name:

    append

    Specifies that the output file, if it already exists, will not be cleared to zero bytes when it is opened. Instead, output will be appended to the end of the existing data. If the noclear argument is not specified, then any previous contents of the file is destroyed when the file is opened (i.e. the file is set to empty (truncated to zero bytes) as soon as it is opened).

    ascii

    Specifies that the file will be written as variable length lines of ASCII characters delimited by line feeds or carriage return line feed sequences at the end of each line. Trailing blanks are removed from each line. This is the opposite of the ebcdic option.

    crlf

    Specifies, for ASCII files, that carriage return line feed sequences are written at the end of each line. If the crlf argument is not specified, then line-feeds only are written at the end of each line.

    ebcdic

    Specifies the file is written as fixed length 80-byte EBCDIC records with no line-end delimiters (the opposite of the ascii option). This is the default.

    noclear             (deprecated)

    This option is deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Please use the more aptly named append option instead.


    Line printer devices

    The argument specifies the name of a file to which the printer output will be written. The output is written in the form of variable length lines of ASCII characters delimited by line feeds or by carriage return line feed sequences. Trailing blanks are removed from each line. Carriage control characters are translated to blank lines or ASCII form feed characters. If the file exists it will be overwritten.

    Additional arguments may be specified after the file name:

    append

    Specifies that the output file, if it already exists, will not be cleared to zero bytes when it is opened. Instead, output will be appended to the end of the existing data. If the append argument is not specified, then any previous contents of the file is destroyed when the file is opened (i.e. the file is set to empty (truncated to zero bytes) as soon as it is opened).

    cctape=  (lll=cc[,lll=cc]...) | name

    This option defines the carriage control tape to use for this printer. It is only valid for 1403 printer devices.

    The option can be specified as either a series of lll=cc values surrounded by parentheses where lll identifies the carriage control tape's line number (1-255) and cc indicates the channel punch for that line (1-12), or as a predefined carriage control tape name.

    More than one channel punch may be specified for a line by either specifying the desired list of channel punches for that line within parentheses or by simply specifying the same line number again in your list but with a different channel number each time.

    The name format specifies the name of a predefined carriage control tape. Valid predefined cctape names are: legacy, fcb2std2 or fcb2id1. The default if not specified is legacy.

    legacy:     cctape=(1=1,7=2,13=3,19=4,25=5,31=6,37=7,43=8,63=9,49=10,55=11,61=12)
    fcb2std2:   cctape=(1=1,7=2,13=3,19=4,25=5,31=6,37=7,43=8,49=9,55=10,61=11,63=12)
    fcb2id1:    cctape=(1=1,8=2,15=3,22=4,29=5,36=6,43=7,50=8,57=9,64=10,71=11,78=12)
    Note that the lines per page value is not supported by the cctape option. Instead, you must specify your desired lines per page value separately via the lpp option.

    crlf

    Specifies that carriage return line feed sequences should be written at the end of each line. If the crlf argument is not specified then the default behavior is to only write line-feeds at the end of each line.

    fcb=  ppnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn | cc:lll[,cc:lll]... | name

    This option is only valid for 3203 or 3211 printer devices. It specifies an initial FCB image to use for this printer.

    This option supports three different formats: old, new and name.

    The old format argument must be exactly 26 digits long, and consist of digits from 0 to 9. The first pair of digits (pp) specifies the number of lines on a printed page (01-99). It is followed by 12 pairs of digits (nn) which specify the line number on the page (00-99) corresponding to each of the 12 possible FCB channels. Specify the line number as 00 for those channels you wish to leave undefined.

    The new format is specified as a series of semicolon-delimited channel and line number pairs (cc:lll), each successive pair separated from the previous pair with a single comma, where cc indicates the channel number and lll indicates the line number for that channel (0-255). To leave a particular FCB channel undefined either specify 0 for the line number or simply don't specify that channel anywhere in your list.

    The name format specifies the name of a predefined fcb image. Valid predefined fcb image names are: legacy, fcb2std2, fcb2id1 or hardware. The default if not specified is legacy.

    legacy:     fcb=01:01,02:07,03:13,04:19,05:25,06:31,07:37,08:43,09:63,10:49,11:55,12:61
    fcb2std2:   fcb=01:01,02:07,03:13,04:19,05:25,06:31,07:37,08:43,09:49,10:55,11:61,12:63
    fcb2id1:    fcb=01:01,02:08,03:15,04:22,05:29,06:36,07:43,08:50,09:57,10:64,11:71,12:78
    hardware:   fcb=01:01
    Note that the lines per page value is not supported by the new or name formats of the fcb option. Instead, you must specify your desired lines per page value separately via the lpp option.

    fcbcheck             (deprecated)

    This option is only valid for 3203 or 3211 printer devices. It requests that an attempt to skip to a FCB channel for which no line number has been set should cause a Unit Check to occur. This is the default. This option is deprecated and will be removed in a future release.

    index=  [-]nn | 0

    Specifies the column number of the form (-31 to +31) where each print line should begin. This option is only valid for 3211 printer devices. For 3203 printer devices the option is accepted but is otherwise ignored.

    Positive values prepend each print line with a number of blanks equal to one less than the index value, thus "indenting" the print line to reach the desired form column. An index value of 1 means flush-left. A negative value causes the first nn columns of each print line to be chopped off. A value of -1 will thus cause the first character of each print line to be dropped, thereby causing the first column of the page to begin with the second character of each printed line.

    The default is 0 meaning to print normally (i.e. indexing is disabled).

    lpi=  6 | 8

    Specifies the number of vertical lines per inch. The only valid values are either 6 or 8. The default is 6.

    lpp=  nnn | 66

    Specifies the number of vertical lines per page (1-255). The default is 66.

    noclear             (deprecated)

    This option is deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Please use the more aptly named append option instead.

    nofcbcheck         (deprecated)

    This option is only valid for 3203 or 3211 printer devices. It requests that an attempt to skip to a FCB channel for which no line number has been set should suppress the Unit Check that would normally occur and to instead simply print the next line of output on the next line instead. It is the opposite of the fcbcheck option.

    This option is deprecated and will be removed in a future release. The option will continue to be accepted for the time being if specified, but is otherwise completely ignored. Skips to non-existent FCB channels will always cause a Unit Check regardless of this option.

    sockdev

    Indicates the line printer is a socket device wherein the filename is actually a socket specification instead of a device filename. When used, there must only be one filename specified in the form: port or host:port. The device then accepts remote connections on the given TCP/IP port, and writes data to the socket instead of to a device file. This allows automatic remote spooling of line printer data. The sockdev option is mutually exclusive with the crlf and append options.

    If the printer filename begins with a vertical bar '|' pipe character, then it is removed and the remainder of the filename is interpreted as a command line (the name of a program or batch file followed by any necessary arguments) to which to "pipe" the printer output to. This is known as the "print-to-pipe" feature. All printer output is then sent to the piped program's stdin input, and all of the piped program's stdout and stderr output is piped back to Hercules for displaying on the hardware console.

    If the "print-to-pipe" command line contains arguments, then quotes must be placed around the entire filename, including the vertical bar, since any tokens following the filename are parsed as Hercules printer device options:

        000E 1403 "|/usr/bin/lpr -Phplj"               (for Unix)
        000E 1403 "|c:\utils\pr -s -PLPT1:" crlf       (for Windows)

    If the "print-to-pipe" command line itself contains quotes, then the command line must be enclosed in apostrophes instead of quotes, for example:

        000E 1403 '|"c:\Program Files\My Utils\pr" -s -PLPT1:' crlf

    Tim Pinkawa has an example which shows how the print-to-pipe feature can be used to create output in PDF format. For Windows users, SoftDevLabs provides a very nice PDF spooler for Hercules called "HercPrt".



    Tape devices

    Five types of tape emulation are supported (see further below):   AWS,   HET,   FakeTape,   Optical Media Attach (OMA),   and   real SCSI .

    The only required parameter is the device filename. All other parameters are optional and must follow the filename. Use * (asterisk) for the filename to specify an empty (unmounted) tape drive.

    If the specified device filename does not exist then either an unlabeled empty tape volume will be created for you automatically or a "file not found" error will occur depending on the setting of the AUTOINIT option. Refer to the AUTOINIT option for more information.

    If the file name starts with the @ (at sign) character the file instead describes an Automatic Cartridge Feeder (ACF) file containing a list of tape emulation files to be automatically loaded in succession. The syntax of each line is identical to the information that can be specified in the configuration file after the device type. If the emulation file filename in the file list is the * (asterisk) character however, then the set of options which follow it apply to all of the remaining emulation files in the list.

    Parameters are appended in succession. In all cases, if the same parameter is specified more than once, the last instance takes precedence. Therefore, it is possible to specify a set of parameters in the base configuration file, another set on a * line, and another set for each individual line. Parameters are then appended in that order: options specified on the base device statement itself first, followed by those options specified on the * statement, and finally those specified on each individual file list statement last.

    A device filename identifying a SCSI tape device cannot be specified in an Automatic Cartridge Feeder (ACF) file list.

    Refer to the distributed source-code's README.TAPE document for additional information regarding system and application programming for tape devices and instructions regarding use of the emulated ACF (Automatic Cartridge Feeder) and AUTOMOUNT features for virtual (non-SCSI) tape devices.

    AWSTAPE virtual tape files

    These contain a complete tape in one file. AWSTAPE files consist of variable length EBCDIC blocks. Each block is preceded by a 6-byte header. Filemarks are represented by a 6-byte header with no data. This is the same format as is used by the P/390. The argument specifies the location of the AWSTAPE file (for example ickdsf.aws)

    FakeTape virtual tape files

    These contain a complete tape in one file. FakeTape files consist of variable length EBCDIC blocks. Each block is preceded by a 12-ASCII-hex-character header. Filemarks are represented by a 12-character header with no data. The FakeTape format is used by the Flex-ES system from Fundamental Software Inc (FSI). The argument specifies the location of the FakeTape file (for example ickdsf.fkt). Note: "FLEX-ES" and "FakeTape" are trademarks of Fundamental Software, Inc.

    HET virtual tape files    (Hercules Emulated Tape)

    These contain a complete tape in one file and have the same structure as the AWSTAPE format with the added ability to have compressed data. The first argument specifies the location of the HET file. The filename must end with ".het" to be recognized by Hercules as an HET file. (for example 023178.het)

    Additional arguments that allow you to control various HET settings are:

    AWSTAPE

    The AWSTAPE argument causes HET files to be written in AWSTAPE format. This basically, disables the additional features provided by the HET format.

    COMPRESS=n
    IDRC=n

    COMPRESS and IDRC control whether compression should be used when writing to HET files. The value n  can be 1 to turn on compression (the default) or 0 to turn it off. IDRC is currently a synonym for COMPRESS, but may be used in the future to control other emulated tape drive features.

    METHOD=n

    The METHOD option allows you to specify which compression method to use. You may specify 1 for ZLIB compression or 2 for BZIP2 compression. The default is 1.

    LEVEL=n

    The LEVEL option controls the level of compression. It ranges from 1 for fastest compression to 9  for best compression. The default is 4.

    CHUNKSIZE=nnnnn

    The CHUNKSIZE option allows you to create HET files that contain different chunk sizes. The AWSTAPE (and therefore the HET) format allows each tape block to be logically broken up into smaller chunks. For instance, if your S/3x0 application creates tapes with a block size of 27998, those blocks would be broken down into nnnnn  sized chunks. The range is from 4096 to 65535, the latter being the default. Decreasing the value from its default may reduce compression performance. For compatability with AWSTAPE files created by the P/390, specify AWSTAPE with CHUNKSIZE=4096.

    The following additional parameters apply to AWS, HET and FakeTape virtual tape files:

    MAXSIZE=n[s]  |  MAXSIZEK=n  |  MAXSIZEM=n

    Specifies the maximum size (in bytes, Kilobytes or Megabytes) that the emulated file is allowed to grow to.

    Or, nnns where s is either K - KILO, M - MEGA, G - GIGA, or T - TERA - BYTES

    Specifying zero for this parameter means "unlimited" (i.e. there is no limit). Note: "T" is not available on all platforms.

    EOTMARGIN=n[s]

    Specifies the number of bytes remaining before reaching maxsize at which point the tape device will signal the presence of the "End of Tape" marker (reflector), thus allowing the program to switch to the next tape.

    Value is either n = bytes, or ns where s is either a K, M, G, or T multiplier.

    READONLY=n

    Specifies whether the tape is mounted read-only (without a write ring or with the cartridge protect switch set to "write protect"). A parameter of 1 means read-only; a parameter of 0 means read-write. If READONLY=1, RO or NORING is not specified, the default is READONLY=0. Note that READONLY=0 does not override the host system file permission settings for the underlying AWS or HET file. If the AWS or HET file is marked read-only, the tape will be mounted read-only despite specification of READONLY=0.

    RO
    NORING

    Specifies that the tape is mounted read-only (without a write ring or with the cartridge protect switch set to "write protect"). RO and NORING are equivalent to READONLY=1.

    RW
    RING

    Specifies that the tape should be mounted read-write, if possible. RW and RING are equivalent to READONLY=0. This is the default if RO, NORING or READONLY=1 is not specified. Note that RW and RING do not override the host system file permission settings for the underlying AWS or HET file. If the AWS or HET file is marked read-only, the tape will be mounted read-only despite specification of RW or RING.

    DEONIRQ=n

    Specifies whether a device end is presented if intervention is required during tape motion. A parameter of 1 selects this option; a parameter of 0 turns it off.

    NOAUTOMOUNT

    Indicates support for guest-initiated automatic tape volume mounting is to always be disabled for this tape device.

    Automatic guest tape-mount support is automatically globally enabled for all virtual (non-SCSI) tape devices by default whenever an allowable automount directory is defined via the AUTOMOUNT configuration file statement or the automount panel command. The NOAUTOMOUNT option allows you to specifically disable such support for a given device.

    The automount feature enables software running in guest operating systems to automatically mount, unmount and/or query for themselves the host "virtual tape volume" filename mounted on a tape drive, via the use of special CCW opcodes (0x4B Set Diagnose and 0xE4 Sense Id) without any intervention on the part of the Hercules operator. An example of such a program for DOS/VSE called TMOUNT is provided in the util subdirectory of the distributed source code.

    This is a sticky option. When specified, automount support for the device remains disabled until the option is specifically removed via a devinit command without the option specified. This means if NOAUTOMOUNT is enabled for a device while global automount functionality is currently disabled (because no AUTOMOUNT statement was specified at Hercules startup), then automount functionality remains disabled for the device even should global automount functionality be later manually enabled via an automount panel command.

    When the 0x4B Set Diagnose CCW is used to auto-mount a virtual tape volume onto a given tape drive, an absolute (fully-qualified) pathname should normally always be specified, but need not be if a path relative to the currently defined "default allowable" automount directory is used instead.

    The default allowable automount directory is always the first "allowable" directory that was defined, or else the current directory if no allowable directories were specifically defined. (There is always a default allowable directory whenever any allowable or unallowable automount directories are defined.)

    Fully-resolved, absolute-full-path filenames are defined as being those which, for Windows, have a ':' (colon) in the second position or, for other host operating systems (e.g. Linux), have a '/' (slash) in the first position. Paths which start with a '.' (period) are considered relative paths and will always be appended to the currently defined default allowable automount directory, before being resolved into fully-qualified paths by the host system. (I.e. only fully-resolved absolute pathnames are used in the performance of the actual automatic tape volume mount.)

    For example, if more than one allowable automount directory is defined and the volume wishing to be mounted happens to reside in the second one, then a fully-qualified absolute pathname should of course be specified (or else one that is relative to the default directory which happens to resolve to the desired file).

    All attempts to automount host files in a "disallowed" directory or any of its subdirectories will be rejected. Similarly any attempt to automount a file which is not within any "allowable" directory or subdirectory will be rejected. An error message is always issued in such cases. A message is also issued whenever a successful mount or unmount is performed.

    A sample guest automount program called TMOUNT for the DOS/VSE operating system is provided in the util subdirectory of the distributed source code.

    Optical Media Attach (OMA) virtual tape files

    These are read-only files which usually reside on CDROM. OMA virtual tapes consist of one CDROM file corresponding to each physical file of the emulated tape. An ASCII text file called the tape descriptor file (TDF) specifies the names of the files which make up the virtual tape. The argument specifies the name of the tape descriptor file (for example /cdrom/tapes/uaa196.tdf)

    Each file on the virtual tape can be in one of three formats:

    TEXT

    TEXT files consist of variable length ASCII records delimited by carriage return line feed sequences at the end of each record. Each record is translated to EBCDIC and presented to the program as one physical tape block.

    FIXED nnnnn

    FIXED files consist of fixed length EBCDIC blocks of the specified length (nnnnn)

    HEADERS

    HEADERS files consist of variable length EBCDIC blocks. Each block is preceded by a 12-byte header.

    If you have any IBM manuals in Bookmanager format on CDROM, you can see some examples of TDF files in the \TAPES directory on the CDROM.

    Real SCSI attached tape drives

    These are real tape drives attached to the host machine via a SCSI interface. Hercules emulation always makes the drive appear as a channel attached device such as 3420 or 3480, although the underlying physical drive may be any type of SCSI attached tape drive, including 4mm or 8mm DAT, DLT, SCSI attached 3480/3490/3590 cartridge drives, and SCSI attached 3420 open reel tape drives.

    Host-attached SCSI tapes are read and written using variable length EBCDIC blocks and filemarks exactly like a mainframe tape volume, and as a result can be freely used and/or exchanged on either one (i.e. SCSI tapes created on a real mainframe can subsequently be read by Hercules just fine, and a SCSI tape created by Hercules can be subsequently read on a mainframe just fine, thus providing a convenient means of exchanging data between the two).

    If you plan on using SCSI tapes with Hercules you might also be interested in the SCSIMOUNT configuration option.

    The only required device statement parameter for SCSI attached tape drives is the name of the device as it is known by the host operating system, usually  "/dev/nst0(for Linux or Windows) or  "\\.\Tape0"   (for Windows only), where '0' means tape drive number 0 (your first or only host-attached SCSI tape drive), '1' means your second host-attached SCSI tape drive, etc.

    Depending on what actual model of SCSI tape drive you actually have and how it behaves, you may need to specify one or more additional optional parameters for Hercules to provide proper emulation of the desired device type. For example: a Quantum 'DLT' (Digital Linear Tape) SCSI tape drive does not return nor use a block-id format compatible with 3480/3490 drives (it instead uses a full 32-bit block-id just like the model 3590 does). It also does not support the Erase Gap command at all.

    Thus, in order to use, for example, a Quantum DLT drive with Hercules, you MUST specify some special additional options to prevent the Erase Gap command from being issued to the drive as well as to inform Hercules that the drive uses 32-bit block-ids.

    Please note that the below options define how the actual SCSI hardware device behaves, which is completely different from the way the emulated device will appear to behave to your guest. That is to say, if you define your tape drive to Hercules as a 3480 device, then Hercules will perform 3480 device type emulation such that the device appears to your guest o/s as if it were a 3480 device. If the actual SCSI device behaves as a 3590 device however (perhaps using/returning 32-bit block-ids instead of the expected 22-bit format block-ids that 3480's use), then you MUST specify the --blkid-32 special option on your Hercules device statement so that Hercules's emulation logic can know that it needs to translate 22-bit block-ids to 32-bit ones before sending them to the actual SCSI hardware (and vice versa: to translate 32-bit block-ids from the actual SCSI drive into 22-bit format block-ids that your guest expects from a 3480 device).

    Special options for SCSI tapes

    As explained just above, certain model SCSI tape drives such as the Quantum DLT series may require special handling in order to provide the desired proper device type emulation. These special options are:

    --blkid-22

    The complete opposite of the below --blkid-32 option. Use this option if your real SCSI tape drive behaves as a 3480/3490 and expects 22-bit block-ids, but you wish to define the drive to Hercules as a 3590 tape drive (which uses 32-bit block-ids).

    --blkid-32

    This option indicates that your SCSI attached tape drive only supports 32-bit block-ids (as used by 3590 drives) and not the 22-bit format used by 3480/3490 drives. You should only specify this option if you intend to define the drive as a model 3480 or 3490 device to Hercules, and then only if your actual real SCSI drive uses 32-bit block-ids.

    If you define your Hercules tape drive as a model 3590 device however, then this option is not needed since model 3590 drives are already presumed to use 32-bit block-ids.

    Specifying this option on a 3480/3490 device statement will cause Hercules device emulation logic to automatically translate the actual SCSI tape drive's 32-bit block-id into 22-bit format before returning it back to the guest operating system (since that is the format the guest operating system expects it to be in for a model 3480/3490 drive), and to translate the guest's 22-bit format block-id into 32-bit format before sending it to the actual SCSI hardware (since that is the format that the actual hardware requires it to be in).

    --no-erg

    This option is intended to prevent issuance of the Erase Gap command to those SCSI tape drives which do not support it (such as the Quantum DLT series). It causes Hercules's device emulation logic to ignore any Erase Gap commands issued to the drive and to return immediate 'success' instead.

    This option should only be used (specified) for drives such as the Quantum, which support switching from read mode to write mode in the middle of a data stream without the need of an intervening Erase Gap command. Specifying it for any other model SCSI drive may cause incorrect functioning as a result of the Erase Gap command not being issued to the actual SCSI hardware.

    Check the manufacturer information for your particular model of SCSI attached tape drive (and/or use SoftDevLabs's "ftape" Windows utility) to determine whether or not this option is needed for your particular drive.

    --online

    Use this option if your host's magtape device driver sets the GMT_ONLINE status flag to report when a tape is mounted instead of the more common behavior of clearing the GMT_DR_OPEN flag.

    Debian 8.3 Linux systems running on HP (Hewlett Packard) hardware using StorageTek 9840 fiber channel drives or DEC TSZ07 9-track drives (via a fc/SCSI bridge) for example, are known to not use the GMT_DR_OPEN flag at all. Rather, they set the GMT_ONLINE status flag to indicate when a tape is mounted, thus requiring the --online option to work properly with Hercules.


    Communication and Channel-to-Channel devices

    The first argument defines the emulation type, and the remaining arguments depend on the chosen emulation type.

    The following are the emulation types that are currently supported:

    QETH     (OSA/QDIO Ethernet Adapter)

    Emulates an OSA Express card running in QDIO mode. Both layer-2 and layer-3 are currently supported.

    For technical reasons, the ifaceipaddr and netmask parameters are required parameters for both Windows and *nix. All other parameters however, are optional.

    The device/emulation type may optionally be specified as OSA or OSD instead of QETH.

    Please note that this is still considered to be an experimental driver still under development. Not all of the features or functionality that real OSA devices have are currently supported. For example, the current implementation only supports three devices: the read device, the write device and the datapath device. Real OSA devices support multiple datapath devices. Support for this feature is planned, but is not yet implemented.

    Required parameters for both Windows and *nix:

    ipaddr  address
    ipaddr  address/prefix

    Specifies the IPv4 address to be assigned to your virtual OSA Express card. This IP Address should match the IP address in your guest's TCPIP PROFILE, although this is not a requirement; during guest initialization your guest should automatically assign the proper IP address to your OSA device.

    The address can be optionally followed by a prefix size expressed in CIDR notation, e.g. 192.168.1.1/24. For IPv4 the prefix size can have a value from 0 to 32. If not specified a value of 32 is assumed. The prefix size is used to produce an equivalent subnet mask. For example, a value of 24 produces a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0. Otherwise the subnet mask must be specify via the netmask parameter.

    netmask  mask

    Specifies the subnet mask to be used with your OSA card. On Windows, this value should be the same subnet mask that your Windows system is using (i.e. that the 'iface' adapter is using).

    The netmask option may only be specified when the subnet mask is not already defined via the optional prefix size parameter of the ipaddr option.


    Optional for *nix only:

    ifname  interface

    Specifies the interface name of a host interface that is already configured (e.g. tun, tun0, etc).  (*nix only)


    Optional for both Windows and *nix:

    iface  device

    Specifies the name of the host tunnel device to use. The default for this option is the value specified by the NETDEV configuration file statement.

    ipaddr6  address
    ipaddr6  address/prefix

    Specifies the IPv6 address to be assigned to your OSA card.

    The address can be optionally followed by the prefix size expressed in CIDR notation, e.g. 2001:db8:3003:1::543:210f/48. For IPv6 the prefix size can have a value from 0 to 128. If not specified a value of 128 is assumed. The prefix size is used to produce an equivalent subnet mask.

    hwaddr  MAC

    Specifies the MAC address to be assigned to your OSA card.

    If not specified then one will be internally generated in the range 02:00:5E:80:00:00 - 02:00:5E:FF:FF:FF using the low order 23 bits of the IPv4 address. For example, if the ipv4 address is 10.1.2.3 the generated MAC address will be 02:00:5E:81:02:03.

    Note: The MAC address you specify for this option MUST have the 02 locally assigned MAC bit on in the first byte, must NOT have the 01 broadcast bit on in the first byte, and MUST be unique as seen by all other devices on your network segment. It should never, for example, be the same as the host adapter MAC address specified on the iface parameter.

    mtu  bytes

    Specifies the Maximum Transmission Unit to be used. The maximum transmission unit (MTU) is the largest packet size, measured in bytes, that can be transmitted over a network.

    On Windows, if the value is not specified or is larger than what CTCI-WIN's WinPCap driver can support for the specified iface host adapter, a warning is issued and the specified value is ignored and the maximum supported value is used instead.

    chpid  id

    Specifies the channel path identifier to be used with the device.

    This is mostly a cosmetic value, but some guest operating systems such as z/OS might require it to operate correctly.

    debug

    Enables debug logging for the device.

    When logging is enabled the Hercules driver logs extra progress and status messages used to help debug an incorrectly functioning driver. The Hercules qeth panel command can be used to limit the type of debug information that is logged. Enter the command help qeth for more information.


    LCS     (LAN Channel Station Emulation)

    An emulated Lan Channel Station Adapter. This emulation mode appears to the operating system running in the Hercules machine as either an IBM 8232 LCS device, the LCS3172 driver of a P/390, a 3172 running ICP (Interconnect Communications Program), or as a simple IBM 2216 router.

    Rather than a point-to-point link, this emulation creates a virtual ethernet adapter through which the guest operating system running in the Hercules machine can communicate. As such, this mode is not limited to TCP/IP traffic, but in fact will handle any ethernet frame.

    There are no required parameters for the LCS emulation, however there are several options that can be specified on the device statement. Also note that on the MAC OS X platform, the long option format (--xxx) is not supported. On MAC, only the short option format (-x) should be used.

    The format of the configuration statement for LCS devices is as follows:

    -n devname    or   --dev devname

    where devname is:

    (Linux/Unix)

    the name of the Tun/Tap special character device, normally /dev/net/tun.

    (Windows)

    either the IP or MAC address of the host system's network card.

    The default for this option is the value specified by the NETDEV configuration file statement.

    -o filename    or   --oat filename

    where filename specifies the filename of the OSA Address Table (OAT). If this option is specified, the optional --mac and guestip entries are ignored in preference to statements in the OAT. (See further below for the syntax of the OAT)

    If no OAT is specified, the emulation module will create the following:

    • An ethernet adapter (port 0) for TCP/IP traffic only.
    • Two device addresses will be defined (devnum and devnum + 1).

    -m MAC Address    or   --mac MAC address

    where 'MAC address' is the optional hardware address for your guest's virtual adapter/interface in the format: hh:hh:hh:hh:hh:hh. The default value is '02:00:5E:nn:nn:nn' where the :nn:nn:nn portion is constructed from the last 3 octets of the specified guestip.

    Note: The MAC address you specify for this option MUST have the 02 locally assigned MAC bit on in the first byte, must NOT have the 01 broadcast bit on in the first byte, and MUST be unique as seen by all other devices on your network segment. It should never, for example, be the same as the host adapter MAC address specified on the -n parameter.

    Note: If you use the --oat option, do not specify an address here. Instead, specify your desired guest adapter MAC address in your OAT file via the HWADD statement.

    guestip

    is an optional IP address of the Hercules (guest OS) side. Note: This is only used to establish a point-to-point routing table entry on driving system. If you use the --oat option, do not specify an address here.

    OAT syntax

    The syntax for the OSA Address Table (OAT) is as follows:

    *****************************************************
    * Dev    Mode   Port    Entry specific information  *
    *****************************************************
    
      0400    IP     00     PRI  172.21.3.32
      0402    IP     00     SEC  172.21.3.33
      0404    IP     00     NO   172.21.3.38
      0406    IP     01     NO   172.21.2.16
      040E    SNA    00
    
    HWADD  00  02:00:FE:DF:00:42
    HWADD  01  02:00:FE:DF:00:43
    
    ROUTE  00  172.21.3.32  255.255.255.224
    

    where:

    Dev
    is the base device address

    Mode
    is the operation mode: IP or SNA.

    Note:  the SNA operation mode is not currently implemented.

    Port
    is the virtual (relative) adapter number (i.e. port number).

    The read/write devices can be swapped by coding the odd address of the even-odd pair in the OAT.

    Up to 4 virtual (relative) adapters (i.e. ports) 00-03 are currently supported.

    For IP modes, the entry specific information is as follows:

    PRI | SEC | NO

    Specifies where a packet with an unknown IP address is forwarded to. PRI is the primary default entry, SEC specifies the entry to use when the primary is not available, and NO specifies that this is not a default entry.

    nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn

    Specifies the home IP address

    When the operation mode is IP  specify only the read (even) device number for Dev. The write (odd) address will be created automatically.

    Additionally, a HWADD and/or ROUTE statement may also be included in the OAT:

    HWADD  pp  hh:hh:hh:hh:hh:hh

    Use the HWADD to specify a hardware (MAC) address for a virtual adapter (port). The first parameter after HWADD specifies the relative adapter (port) to which the address is applied.

    Note: The MAC address you specify for this option MUST have the 02 locally assigned MAC bit on in the first byte, must NOT have the 01 broadcast bit on in the first byte, and MUST be unique as seen by all other devices on your network segment. It should never, for example, be the same as the host adapter MAC address specified on the -n parameter, nor the same as the HWADD defined for any other port.

    ROUTE  pp  nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn  ...

    The ROUTE statement is included for convenience. This requests Hercules's network configuration logic (hercifc utility on Linux or CTCI-WIN on Windows) to automatically create a network route for this specified virtual adapter. Please note that it is not necessary to include point-to-point routes for each IP address in the table since this is done automatically by the Hercules device driver's emulation module.


    CTCI     (Channel to Channel link to TCP/IP stack)

    A point-to-point IP connection with the TCP/IP stack of the driving system on which Hercules is running. See the Hercules TCP/IP page for unix details, in particular the use of preconfigured interfaces.

    The Windows implementation is different from the unix one. See SoftDevLab's CTCI-WIN page for further details and information.

    For unix systems, such as Linux, BSD, and OSX, you may use preconfigured interfaces or you may request Hercules to configure the interface for you. In the first case you must know and supply the name of the interface to use; in the second case the kernel supplies an interface name.

    Required for Linux when using a preconfigured interface:

    ifname

    Specifies the interface name of an interface that is already configured. The flag --if may optionally be specified before the name.

    Specify no IP addresses or other arguments as the information is already configured into the interface.

    Required for Linux when not using a preconfigured interface, and for Windows:

    guestip

    Specifies the IP address of the guest operating system running under Hercules.

    hostip

    Specifies the IP address of the host (Linux or Windows) side of the point-to-point link. This may or may not be the same as your system's regular IP address. For Windows, if the host system is configured with DHCP, this should instead be the MAC address of the Ethernet adapter you wish to use to have Hercules communicate with the outside world.

    Optional for Windows:

    If these arguments are specified, they must precede the required arguments.

    -m MAC address    or   --mac MAC address

    where 'MAC address' is the optional hardware address for your guest's virtual adapter/interface in the format: hh:hh:hh:hh:hh:hh. The default value is '02:00:5E:nn:nn:nn' where the :nn:nn:nn portion is constructed from the last 3 octets of the specified guestip.

    Note: The MAC address you specify for this option MUST have the 02 locally assigned MAC bit on in the first byte, must NOT have the 01 broadcast bit on in the first byte, and MUST be unique as seen by all other devices on your network segment. It should never, for example, be the same as the host adapter MAC address specified on the -n parameter.

    -k  kernel-capture-buffer-size
    -i  tuntap32-i/o-buffer-size

    See SoftDevLabs's CTCI-WIN page for further details and information.

    Optional for both Linux and Windows:

    If these arguments are specified, they must precede the required arguments:

    -n name    or   --dev name

    Specifies the name of the tunnel device to use. The default is the value specified by the NETDEV configuration file statement.

    -s netmask

    where netmask is the netmask to use for the automatically added point-to-point route in standard dotted internet noitation (e.g. 255.255.255.0)

    -x name    or   --if name

    Specifies the name of the network interface to use.

    There is no default for this argument as the kernel assigns an interface name if none is provided.

    -d    or   --debug

    Specifies that debugging output is to be produced on the Hercules control panel. This should normally be left unspecified.


    CTCE     (Enhanced Channel-to-Channel Emulation via TCP connection (true 3088 CTCA))

    The CTCE device type emulates a true 3088 Channel to Channel Adapter. CTCE devices are emulated via TCP/IP connections between two or more Hercules instances.

    A Hercules CTCE device requires two even-odd pairs of devices, one for reading and the other for writing. Each individual device of the even-odd device pair requires and even-odd pair of port numbers. Only the even numbered port number needs to be specified however. The odd port number is automatically derived from the even port number by simply adding 1 to the even port number.

    The socket connection pairs cross-connect, the arrows showing the send->receive direction :

            x-lport-even  -->  y-rport-odd
            x-lport-odd   <--  y-rport-even

    CTCE connected Hercules instances can be hosted on either Unix or Windows platforms. Neither side needs to be the same as the other. Each side can be different from the other if needed. One side can be Windows and the other side can be Linux if so desired.

    There are three required positional arguments:

    lport
    The even numbered TCP/IP port number on the local system.

    raddress
    The IP address of the remote system.

    rport
    The even numbered TCP/IP port number on the remote system.

    The remaining positional arguments are optional:

    mtu
    Maximum Transmission Unit buffer size. The default value is 32768 bytes.

    sml
    Small minimum for MTU. The default value is 8 bytes.

    A sample CTCE device configuration is shown below:

    First Hercules PC Host with IP address 192.168.1.100:

        0E40  CTCE  30880  192.168.1.200  30880
        0E41  CTCE  30882  192.168.1.200  30882 

    Second Hercules PC Host with IP address 192.168.1.200:

        0E40  CTCE  30880  192.168.1.100  30880
        0E41  CTCE  30882  192.168.1.100  30882 


    PTP     (MPCPTP/MPCPTP6 Channel to Channel link)

    A point-to-point IP connection with the TCP/IP stack of the host system on which Hercules is running. From the point of view of the guest image running in the Hercules machine it appears to be an MPCPTP and/or MPCPTP6 ESCON CTC link to another image.

    For *nix systems, such as Linux, BSD, and OSX, you may use preconfigured interfaces or you may request Hercules to configure the interface for you. In the first case you must know and supply the name of the interface to use; in the second case the kernel supplies an interface name. See the Hercules TCP/IP page for more details.

    Required for *nix when using a preconfigured interface:

    [-x/--if] ifname

    Specifies the interface name of a TUN interface that is already configured.

    Specify no host names or IP addresses or other arguments as the information is already configured into the interface.

    Required for *nix when not using a preconfigured interface, and for Windows:

    guest1

    Specifies the host name or IP address of the guest operating system running under Hercules.

    host1

    Specifies the host name or IP address of the host (Linux or Windows) side of the point-to-point link.

    guest2

    Specifies the host name or IP address of the guest operating system running under Hercules.

    host2

    Specifies the host name or IP address of the host (Linux or Windows) side of the point-to-point link.

    guest1 and host1 must both be of the same address family, i.e. both IPv4 or both IPv6.

    guest2 and host2, if specified, must both be of the same address family, i.e. both IPv4 or both IPv6, and must not be of the same address family as guest1 and host1.

    If a host name is specified for guest1, and the host name can be resolved to both an IPv4 and an IPv6 address, use either the -4/--inet or the -6/--inet6 option to specify which address family should be used; if neither the -4/--inet nor the -6/--inet6 option is specified, whichever address family the resolver returns first will be used.

    host1 or host2 can be followed by the prefix size expressed in CIDR notation, e.g. 192.168.1.1/24 or 2001:db8:3003:1::543:210f/48. For IPv4 the prefix size can have a value from 0 to 32; if not specified a value of 32 is assumed. For IPv6 the prefix size can have a value from 0 to 128; if not specified a value of 128 is assumed. For IPv4 the prefix size is used to produce the equivalent subnet mask; for example, a value of 24 produces a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.

    If guest1, host1, guest2 or host2 are numeric IPv6 addresses, they can be between braces, e.g. [2001:db8:3003:1::543:210f].

    Optional for *nix:

    If these arguments are specified, they must precede the required arguments.

    -t size    or   --mtu size

    where size is the maximum transmission unit size. The default size is 1500.

    -x name    or   --if name

    Specifies the name of the TUN interface to use. There is no default for name.

    Optional for Windows:

    If these arguments are specified, they must precede the required arguments.

    -m MAC address    or   --mac MAC address

    where 'MAC address' is the optional hardware address for the virtual interface in the format: hh:hh:hh:hh:hh:hh. The default value is '02:00:5E:nn:nn:nn' where the :nn:nn:nn portion is constructed from the last 3 octets of the specified guestip.

    Note: The MAC address you specify for this option MUST have the 02 locally assigned MAC bit on in the first byte, must NOT have the 01 broadcast bit on in the first byte, and MUST be unique as seen by all other devices on your network segment. It should never, for example, be the same as the host adapter MAC address specified on the -n parameter.

    -k  kernel-capture-buffer-size
    -i  tuntap32-i/o-buffer-size

    Refer to the Help file included with SoftDevLabs's CTCI-WIN product for further details and information.

    Optional for both *nix and Windows:

    If these arguments are specified, they must precede the required arguments:

    -n name    or   --dev name

    Specifies the name of the tunnel device to use. The default for this option is the value specified by the NETDEV configuration file statement.

    -4    or   --inet

    Indicates that when a host name is specified for guest1, the host name must resolve to an IPv4 address.

    -6    or   --inet6

    Indicates that when a host name is specified for guest1, the host name must resolve to an IPv6 address.

    -d    or   --debug

    Specifies that debugging output is to be produced on the Hercules control panel. This should normally be left unspecified.



    CKD DASD devices

    The argument specifies the name of a file containing the disk CKD DASD image or the INET address of a Hercules shared device server.

    The file consists of a 512-byte device header record followed by fixed length track images. The length of each track image depends on the emulated device type, and is always rounded up to the next multiple of 512 bytes.

    Volumes larger than 2GB (for example, the 3390 model 3) can be supported by spreading the data across more than one file. Each file contains a whole number of cylinders. The first file (which contains cylinders 0-2518 in the case of a 3390) usually has _1 as the last two characters of its name. The ckddasd driver allocates the remaining files by replacing the last character of the file name by the characters 2, 3, etc.

    Note:  When CKD DASD images are spread across multiple files, you must specify only the first file name (the file with suffix _1) in the configuration statement.

    If your operating system supports large file sizes (or 64-bit offsets) then volumes larger than 2G can be kept in a single file.

    Alternatively, the argument may specify the name of a file containing a compressed CKD DASD image. The CKD driver will automatically detect whether the file contains a regular CKD image or a compressed CKD image.

    Refer to "Creating an empty DASD volume" in the "Creating, formatting, and loading DASD volumes" section of the Creating DASD web page for information on using the 'dasdinit' command/utility to create compressed dasd files. Refer to the Compressed Dasd Emulation page for details on the actual CCKD emulation itself and additional information on the CCKD initialization/tuning control file statement.

    If you specify an INET address, the format is:

    ip-name-or-addr:port:devnum

    ip-name-or-addr specifies the internet name or address where the Hercules shared device server is running.

    port specifies the port number the shared device server is listening on. If omitted, the default is 3990.

    devnum specifies the device number on the shared device server. If omitted, the default is the current device number.

    In addition to the above, some additional optional arguments are also supported.

    sf=shadow-file-name

    A shadow file contains all the changes made to the emulated dasd since it was created, until the next shadow file is created. The moment of the shadow file's creation can be thought of as a snapshot of the current emulated dasd at that time, because if the shadow file is later removed, then the emulated dasd reverts back to the state it was at when the snapshot was taken.

    Using shadow files, you can keep the base file on a read-only device such as cdrom, or change the base file attributes to read-only, ensuring that this file can never be corrupted.

    Hercules console commands are provided to add a new shadow file, remove the current shadow file (with or without backward merge), compress the current shadow file, and display the shadow file status and statistics

    For detailed information regarding shadow files and their use, please see the "Shadow Files" section of the Compressed Dasd Emulation web page.

    readonly

    Readonly returns "write inhibited" sense when a write is attempted. Note that not all of the sense bits may be getting set absolutely correctly however. (Some people have reported getting different error messages under Hercules than a real machine, but it really hasn't been an issue for a while now.)

    readonly may be abbreviated as rdonly or ro

    fakewrite

    Fakewrite is a kludge for the readonly sense problem mentioned above. Here the disk is not intended to be updated (MVS updates the DSCB last referenced field for a readonly file) and any writes appear to be successful even though nothing actually gets written.

    fakewrite may be abbreviated as fakewrt or fw

    [no]lazywrite
    [no]fulltrackio

    These options have been deprecated. They are still accepted, but they do absolutely nothing.

    fulltrackio may be abbreviated as fulltrkio or ftio

    cu=type

    Specifies the type of control unit to which this device is attached. The use of this parameter does not necessarily imply that all functions of the specified control unit are emulated, its only purpose is to force a particular control unit type to be indicated in the data returned by SENSE ID and similar CCW's.

    The default value depends on the device type:

    Device typeDefault CU type
    23112841
    23142314
    3330 3340
    3350 3375
    3380
    3880
    33903990
    93459343

    Other values which may be specified are: 3990-3 and 3990-6.

    Normally the default value is appropriate and this parameter need not be specified.


    FBA DASD devices

    The argument specifies the name of a file which contains the FBA DASD image or the INET address of a Hercules shared device server.

    The file consists of fixed length 512-byte records, each of which represents one physical block of the emulated disk.

    To allow access to a minidisk within a full-pack FBA DASD image file, two additional arguments may be specified after the file name:

    origin

    Specifies the relative block number within the DASD image file at which the minidisk begins. The number must be less than the number of blocks in the file. The default origin is zero.

    numblks

    Specifies the number of 512-byte blocks in the minidisk. This number must not exceed the number of blocks in the file minus the origin. If omitted, or if specified as an asterisk, then the minidisk continues to the end of the DASD image file.

    If you specify an INET address the format is:

    ip-name-or-addr:port:devnum

    ip-name-or-addr specifies the internet name or address where the Hercules shared device server is running.

    port specifies the port number the shared device server is listening on. If omitted, the default is 3990.

    devnum specifies the device number on the shared device server. If omitted, the default is the current device number.

    In addition to the above, some additional optional arguments are also supported.

    sf=shadow-file-name

    The handling of shadow files for FBA devices is identical as that for CKD devices. Please refer to the preceding CKD section for information regarding use of the sf= shadow file option.


    Communication Line - BSC

    (Preliminary 2703 BSC Support)

    Describes a BSC emulation line entry to either link 2 Hercules engines or a custom made program emulating a 2780, 3780 or 3x74, or a custom made program interfacing to a real BSC line. The line emulates a point-to-point BSC link. There is no point-to-multipoint handling.

    The communication is emulated over a TCP connection. All bytes are transfered as-is (except for doubling DLE in transparent mode) just like it would over a real BSC link. Emulated EIA (DCD, DTR, CTS, etc..) or X.21/V.11 leads (C, T, etc..) are treated differently depending on the DIAL option selected.

    The following options define the line emulation behaviour:

    DIAL=IN | OUT | INOUT | NO

    Specifies call direction (if any). If DIAL=NO is specified, the TCP outgoing connection is attempted as soon as an 'ENABLE' CCW is executed. Also, in this mode, an incoming connection will always be accepted. If DIAL=IN|INOUT is specified, a TCP incoming call is accepted ONLY if an 'ENABLE' CCW is currently executing on the device. If DIAL=OUT, the 'ENABLE' CCW is rejected. When DIAL=IN|INOUT is specified, a DIAL CCW allows the application to establish a TCP connection to a specific host. For other DIAL values, the DIAL CCW is rejected.

    LHOST=hostname | ip address | *

    Specifies which IP address to listen on. This also conditions the network interface from which incoming calls will be accepted. Specifying '*' means all incoming TCP calls are accepted, regardless of the destination IP address or call origin. This is the default value. Specifying a specific IP address when DIAL=OUT is specified has no effect.

    LPORT=service name | port number

    Specifies the TCP port for which to listen to incoming TCP calls. This value is mandatory for DIAL=IN|INOUT|NO. It is ignored for DIAL=OUT.

    RHOST=hostname | ip address
    RPORT=service name | port number

    Specifies the remote host and port to which to direct a TCP connection on a DIAL=NO line when an 'ENABLE' CCW is executed. This option is mandatory when DIAL=NO is specified. It is ignored for other DIAL values.

    The following options are tuning options. In most cases, using the default values give the best results

    RTO=0 | -1 | nnn | 3000

    Specifies the number of milliseconds before terminating a read on a timeout, when no read termination control character is received. Specifying 0 means the READ ends immediately. -1 specifies there is no timeout.

    PTO=0 | -1 | nnn | 3000

    Specifies the number of milliseconds before terminating a POLL on a timeout, when no ACK or NACK sequence is received. Specifying 0 means the POLL ends immediately. -1 specifies there is no timeout.

    ETO=0 | -1 | nnn | 10000

    Specifies the number of milliseconds before terminating an ENABLE operation on a timeout. the timeout applies when DIAL=NO|IN|INOUT is specified, the outgoing TCP call fails (DIAL=NO) and there is no previously or currently established TCP connection for this line. When DIAL=NO is specified, the timeout defaults to 10 seconds. For DIAL=IN|INOUT, the timeout defaults to -1.

    Communication Line - TTY

    (Preliminary 2703 TELE2 TTY Support)

    Describes a 2703 Telegraph Terminal Control Type II (TTY 33/35) stop/start line, providing access to the Host OS via a standard TELNET client. To the host OS the line emulates an asynchronous TELE2 connection. The communication is emulated over a TELNET connection.

    The following options define the line emulation behaviour:

    LPORT=port number

    Specifies the TCPIP port to listen on for incoming TCP calls.

    DIAL=IN

    Specifies that this line is for in-bound calls. Required.

    TERM=TTY

    Specifies that this definition is for a TTY port. Required

    Additional 2703 Communication Line options

    The following are some additional options that may also be specified for 2703 devices:

    APPEND=hh...
    PREPEND=hh...

    Specifies up to four bytes (in S/370 channel format, not ASCII) to be prepended or appended to input line data received from terminals before they are sent to the guest OS. Typical use is to add Circle D and C around each input transmission (2741's for APL\360).

    BINARY=NO | YES

    Negotiate to telnet binary mode if TERM=RXVT4APL.

    BS=DUMB
    BREAK=DUMB

    Backspace and break key handling option.

    When using windows telnet it is recommended to always use BS=DUMB and BREAK=DUMB.

    CODE=EBCD | CORR | NONE

    Specify code=ebcd for EBCD, code=corr for correspondence code, or code=none to disable all translation. The code= option applies to 2741 mode only.

    CRLF=YES | NO

    Option to map 2741 NL to TTY CRLF sequence.

    CRLF2CR=YES | NO

    Remove LF that immediately follow CR.

    EOL=hh

    Specifies the ASCII byte value that, when received, marks the end of the input line. The default is EOL=0D.

    ISKIP=hh...

    Specifies up to four ASCII bytes that are to be suppressed during input processing.

    KA=NO | (idle,intv,count)

    Defines the TCP/IP keepalive settings for this line's connections. Refer the the CONKPALV statement for details.

    LNCTL=TELE2 | IBM1 | BSC

    Specifies the type of communications line being defined.

    For asynchronous communications lines specify LNCTL=TELE2 if TERM=TTY or LNCTL=IBM1 if TERM=2741. For binary synchronous (BSC) lines specify LNCTL=BSC.

    SKIP=hh...

    Specifies "garbage" code points (either byte-reversed ASCII for TERM=TTY or correspondence code/EBCD for TERM=2741) that are to be suppressed in output processing, thereby allowing distinct lists to be used for different terminal types.

    SENDCR=NO | YES

    Send CR back to terminal when input line received.

    SWITCHED=IN | OUT | INOUT | NO

    Switched is just a synonym for the DIAL option.

    TERM=TTY | 2741 | RXVT4APL

    Specifies the terminal type. Use RXVT4APL for 8-bit and character translation in 2741 mode.

    UCTRANS=YES | NO

    Enable automatic translation to uppercase.


    If you have a question about Hercules, see the Hercules Frequently-Asked Questions page.


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